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Unformatted text preview: e: 'They ask you about alcohol and gambling, say: in these there is great harm and also benefit for the people, but their harm far outweighs their benefit' (al-Baqarah; 2:219). Then offering prayers while under the influence of alcohol was prohibited (al-Nisa', 4:43). Finally a total ban on wine drinking was imposed (al-Maidah, 5:93) and both alcohol and gambling were declared to be 'works of the devil ... the devil wants to sow enmity and rancour among you'. This shows the gradual tackling of problems as and when they arose. The ulema are in agreement to the effect that the entire text of the Quran is Mutawatir, that is, its authenticity is proven by universally accepted testimony. It has been retained both in memory and in written record throughout the generations. Hence nothing less that tawatur is accepted in evidence to establish the authenticity of the variant readings of the Quran. Thus the variant reading of some words in a few ayat, attributed to 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, for example, which is not established by tawatur is not a part of the Quran. In the context of penance (kaffarah) of a false oath, for example, the standard text provides this to be three days of fasting. But Ibn Mas'ud's version has it as three consecutive days of fasting. Since the additional element (i.e. consecutive) in the relevant ayah in sura al-Maidah (5:92) is not established by tawatur, it is not a part of the Quran and is therefore of no effect. Shawkani, Irshad, P. 30; Shaltut, Al-Islam, P. 440; The same would apply to the two other instances of variant readings which are attributed to Abdullah ibn Masud concerning the punishment of theft, and the form of divorce known as ila in sura al-Ma'idah (5: 38) and al-Baqarah (2: 226) respectively. Since these are only supported by solitary reports (Ahad) they do not constitute a part of the Quran.] During the lifetime of the Prophet, the text of the Quran was preserved not only in memories, but also in inscriptions on such available materials as flat stones, wood and bones, which would explain why it could not have been compiled in a bound volume. Initially the first Caliph, Abu Bakr, collected the Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 24 [Ghazali, Mustafa, I. 64; Qur'an soon after the battle of Yamamah which led to the death of at least seventy of the memorisers of the Qur'an. Zayd b. Thabit, the scribe of the Prophet, was employed on the task of compiling the text which he accomplished between 11 and 14 Hijrah. But several versions and readings of this edition soon crept into use. Hence the third Caliph, 'Uthman, once again utilised the services of Zayd to verify the accuracy of the text and compiled it in a single Volume. All the remaining variations were then destroyed. As a result only one authentic text has remained in use to this day. Jurisprudence, P. 71.] [Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. 62; Abdur Rahim, The Quran was revealed in two distinct periods of the Prophet's mission in Mecca and Madinah respectively. The larger part of the Quran, that is nineteen out of the total of thirty parts,...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13