This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: know the subject of our comparison. The Qur'an also tells us Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 100 [37. that 'there is nothing like Him' (al-Shura, 42:11). Since the Lawgiver has not explained these resemblances to us, they remain unintelligible. [39. Khallaf, 'Ilm, p. 176.] The existence of the Mutashabih in the Qur'an is proven by the testimony of the Book itself, which is as follows: He it is who has sent down to you the Book. Some of it consist of Muhkamat, which are the Mother of the Book, while others are Mutashabihat. Those who have swerving in their hearts, in their quest for sedition, follow the Mutashabihat and search for its hidden meanings. But no one knows those meanings except God. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: We believe in it, the whole is from our Lord. But only people of inner understanding really heed. (Al-'Imran, 3:7). The ulema have differed in their understanding of this ayah, particularly with regard to the definition of Muhkamat and Mutashabihat. But the correct view is that Muhkam is that part of the Qur'an which is not open to conjecture and doubt, whereas the Mutashabih is. With regard to the letters which appear at the beginning of suras, it has been suggested that they are the names of the suras in which they occur. As for the question of whether acting upon the Mutashabih is permissible or not, there is disagreement, but the correct view is that no one may act upon it. This is so not because the Mutashabih has no meaning, but because the correct meaning is not known to any human being. [40. Ghazali, Mustasfa, I, 68.] There is no doubt that all the Mutashabihat have a meaning, but it is only known to God, and we must not impose our estimations on the words of God in areas where no indication is available to reveal the correct meaning to us. [41. Shawkani, Irshad, pp.31-32.] Classification II: The 'Amm (General) and the Khass (Specific). From the viewpoint of their scope, words are classified into the 'general' and the 'specific'. This is basically a conceptual distinction which is not always obvious in the grammatical forms of words, although the ulema have identified certain linguistic patterns of words which assist us in differentiating the 'Amm from the Khass. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 101 'Amm may be defined as a word which applies to many things, not limited in number, and includes everything to which it is applicable. [42. Ghazali, Mustasfa, II, 12; Abdur Rahim, Jurisprudence, p. 79.] An example of this is the word 'insan' (human being) in the Qur'anic ayah, 'verily the human being is in loss' (al-'Asr, 103:1), or the command, 'whoever enters this house, give him a dirham'. In both examples the application of 'human being' and 'whoever' is general and includes every human being without any limitation. 'Amm is basically a word that has a single meaning, but which applies to an unlimited number without any restrictions. All words, whether in Arabic or any other language, are basically general, and unless they are specified or qualified in some way, they retain their generality. According...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13