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Unformatted text preview: .] [For an exclusive treatment of words of foreign origin in the But this usage is confined to odd words; a phrase or a sentence of non-Arabic origin does not occur in the Quran. [Shaltut, Al-Islam, P. 486; von Denffer, 'Ulum, P. 73.] Since the Quran consists of manifest revelation in Arabic, a translation of the Quran into another language, or its commentary whether in Arabic or other languages, are not a part of the Quran. However, Imam Abu Hanifah has held the view that the Quran is the name for a meaning only, and as such, salah may be performed in its Persian translation. But the disciples of Abu Hanifah have disagreed with this view and it is reported that Abu Hanifah himself reversed his initial ruling, and this is now considered to be the correct view of the Hanafi school. [This report is attributed to a Nuh b. Maryam who has confirmed that Abu Hanifah changed his initial ruling. See Aba Zahrah, Usul, p. 60; Shaltut, Al-Islam, P. 478; Sabuni, Madkhal, P. 4.] The Prophet himself memorised the Quran, and so did his Companions. This was, to a large extent, facilitated by the fact that the Quran was revealed piecemeal over a period of twenty-three years in relation to particular events. The Quran itself explains the rationale of graduality (tanjim) in its revelation as follows: 'The unbelievers say, why has not the Quran been sent down to him [Muhammad] all at once. Thus [it is revealed] that your hearts may be strengthened, and We rehearse it to you gradually, and well-arranged' [al-Furqan, 23:32]. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 23 Elsewhere we read in the text: 'It is a Quran We have divided into parts in order that you may recite it to people at intervals: We have revealed it by stages' (Bani Isra'il, 17:106). In yet another passage, Almighty God addresses the Prophet: 'By degrees shall We teach you to declare [the message] so that you do not forget' (al-A'la, 87:6). Graduality in the revelation of Quran afforded the believers the opportunity to reflect over it and to retain it in their memories. Revelation over a period of time also facilitated continuous contact and renewal of spiritual strength so that the hostility of the unbelievers toward the new faith did not weaken the hearts of the Muslims. Furthermore, in view of the widespread illiteracy of the Arabs at the time, had the Quran been revealed all at once, they would have found it difficult to understand. The Quranic legislation concerning matters which touched the lives of the people was therefore not imposed all at once. It was revealed piecemeal so as to avoid hardship to the believers. p. 61; Qattan, Tashri, P. 57ff.] [Sabuni, Madkhal, PP. 41-42.; Abu Zahrah, Usul, The ban on the consumption of alcohol affords an interesting example of the Quranic method of graduality in legislation, and throws light on the attitude of the Quran to the nature and function of legislation itself. Consumption of alcohol was apparently, subject to no restriction in the early years. Later, the following Quranic passage was revealed in the form of a moral advic...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13