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Unformatted text preview: termed as falsehood or that which has no reality and truth, and that falsehood has no place in the Qur'an. Imam Ghazali discusses this argument in some length and represents the majority view when he refutes it and acknowledges the existence of the Majazi in the Qur'an. The Qur'anic expression, for example, that 'God is the light of the heavens and the earth' (al-Nur, 24:35) and 'whenever they [the Jews] kindled the fire of war, God extinguished it' (al-Ma'idah, 5:67), God being 'the light of the universe', and God having 'extinguished the fire of war', are both metaphorical usages; and numerous other instances of the Majazi can be found in the Qur'an. [73. Ghazali, Mustasfa, 67-78.] As already stated, the Haqiqi and the Majazi both occur in the Qur'an, and they each convey their respective meanings. But this is only the case where the Majazi does not represent the dominant usage. In the event where a word has both a literal and a metaphorical meaning and the latter is well-established and dominant, it is likely to prevail over the former. Some ulema have, however, held the opposite view, namely that the Haqiqi would prevail in any case; and according to yet a third view, both are to be given equal weight. But the first of these views represents the view of the majority. To give an example, the word 'talaq' literally means 'release' or 'removal of restriction' (izalah al-qayd), be it from the tie of marriage, slavery, or ownership, etc. But since the juridical Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 113 [71. See for details Shawkani, meaning of talaq, which is dissolution of marriage, or divorce, has become totally dominant, it is this meaning that is most likely to prevail, unless there be evidence to suggest otherwise. The Haqiqi is sub-divided, according to the context in which it occurs, into linguistic (lughawi), customary (urfi) and juridical (shar'i). The linguistic Haqiqi is a word which is used in its dictionary meaning, such as 'lion' for that animal, and 'man' for the male gender of the human being. The customary Haqiqi occurs in the two varieties of general and special: when a word is used in a customary sense and the custom is absolutely common among people, the customary Haqiqi is classified as general, that is, in accord with the general custom. An example of this in Arabic is the word 'dabbah' which in its dictionary meaning applies to all living beings that walk on the face of the earth, but which has been assigned a different meaning by general custom, that is, an animal walking on four legs. But when the customary Haqiqi is used for a meaning that is common to a particular profession or group, the customary Haqiqi is classified as special, that is, in accord with a special custom. For example the Arabic word raf ('nominative') and nasb ('accusative') have each acquired a technical meaning that is common among grammarians and experts in the language. There is some disagreement as to the nature of the juridical Haqiqi, as some ulema consider this to be a variety of the Majazi, but having said this...
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- Spring '13