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Unformatted text preview: ular order can be ascertained in the sequence of its text. To give just a few examples, the command concerning salah appears in the second sura, in the midst o other ayat which relate to the subject of divorce (al-Baqarah, 2:228-248). In the same sura, we find rules which relate to wine-drinking and war, followed by passages concerning the treatment of orphans and the marriage of unbelieving women (al-Baqarah, 216-211) Similarly the ayat relating to the pilgrimage of hajj occur both in sura al-Baqarah (196-2O3) and sura al-Hajj (22:26-27). Rules on marriage divorce and revocation (rij'ah) are found in the suras al-Baqarah, al-Talaq, and al-Nisa. From this a conclusion has been drawn that the Quran is an indivisible whole and a guide for belief and action which must be accepted and followed in its entirety. Hence any attempt to follow some parts or the Qur'an and abandon others will be totally invalid. This is in fact the purport of the Quranic text (al-Maidah, 5: 52) where the Prophet has been warned: 'Beware of them (i.e. the disbelievers) lest they seduce you away from a part of that which God has sent down to you. [Shaltut, Al-Islam, PP. 499-500; Qattan, Tashri, p. 83; Badran, Usul, P. 72.] Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 22 [Hughes, The Quran consists of manifest revelation (wahy zahir), which is defined as communication from God to the Prophet Muhammad, conveyed by the angel Gabriel, in the very words of God. Manifest revelation differs from internal revelation (wahy batin) in that the latter consists of the inspiration (ilham) of concepts only: God inspired the Prophet and the latter conveyed the concepts in his own words. All the sayings, or ahadith, of the Prophets fall under the category of internal revelation, and as such they are not included in the Quran. A brief word may be added here concerning Hadith Qudsi. In this variety of Hadith, the Prophet narrates a concept directly from God. Hadith Qudsi differs from the other varieties of Hadith in form only. The Prophet himself has not distinguished Hadith Qudsi from other ahadith: it was in fact introduced as a separate category by the ulema of Hadith at around the fifth century Hijrah. Hadith in all of its varieties consists of divine inspiration which is communicated in the words of the Prophet. No Hadith may be ranked on equal footing with the Quran. The salah cannot be performed by reciting the Hadith, nor is the recitation of Hadith considered as of the same spiritual merit as the Qur'an. [Khallaf, Ilm, P. 23; Abdur Rahim, Jurisprudence, p. 69; Abu Zahrah, Usul, P. 59.] The Quran explicitly states that it is all communicated in pure and clear Arabic (al-Nahl, 16:3o). Although the ulema are in agreement that words of non-Arabic origin occur in the Qur'an, they are, nevertheless, words which were admitted and integrated into the language of the Arabs before the revelation of the Quran. To give just a few examples, words such as qistas (scales - occurring in the Sura al-Isra', 17:35), ghassaq (intense cold) in Sura al-Naba' (78:2 5) and sijjil (baked clay - in al-Hijr, 15:74) are of Greek, Turkish and Persian origins respectively. Qur'an see Shawkani, Irshad, p. 22ff. See also Ghazali, Mustasfa, I, 68...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13