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Unformatted text preview: t, saying that the Prophet said such-and-such, but when he is not so convinced, he refers to the person from whom he received it. Examples of such Mursals are those that are transmitted by Muhammad b. Hasan al-Shaybani who is a tabi' al-tabi'i but considered to be reliable. The majority of ulema are of the view that acting upon a Mursal Hadith is not obligatory. p. 87; Khin, Athar, p. 401.] [141. Shafi'i, Risalah, p. 64; Abu Zahrah, Usul, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 81 The differential approaches that the leading Imams have taken toward the reliability of the Mursal may be partially explained by the fact that Shafi'i and Ahmad b. Hanbal lived at a time when the distance to the Prophet was further extended. Hence they felt the need of continuity in transmission more strongly than their predecessors, Abu Hanifah and Malik. The remaining two varieties of disconnected Hadith that need only briefly to be mentioned are the Munqati' and the Mu'dal. The former refers to a Hadith whose chain of narrators has a single missing link somewhere in the middle. The Mu'dal on the other hand is a Hadith in which two consecutive links are missing in the chain of its narrators. Neither of them are acceptable; and the ulema are in agreement on this. [142. Azami, Studies, p. 43; Hitu, Wajiz, p.316.] Sahih, Hasan and Da'if From the viewpoint of their reliability, the narrators of Hadith have been graded into the following categories: (1) the Companions who are generally accepted to be reliable; (2.) thiqat thabitun, or those who rank highest in respect of reliability next to the Companions; (3) thiqat, or trustworthy but of a lesser degree than the first two; (4) saduq, or truthful, that is one who is not known to have committed a forgery or serious errors; (5) saduq yahim, that is truthful but committing errors; (6) maqbul or accepted, which implies that there is no proof to the effect that his report is unreliable; (7) majhul, or a narrator of unknown identity. These are followed by lower classes of persons who are classified as sinners (fussaq), those suspected of lying, and outright liars. [143. Azami, Studies, p. 60.] Hadith is classified as Sahih or authentic when its narrators belong to the first three categories. Studies p. 62.] It is defined as a Hadith with a continuous isnad all the way back to the Prophet consisting of upright persons who also possess retentive memories and whose narration is free both of obvious and of subtle defects. [145. Shawkani, Irshad; p.64; Siba'i, Al-Sunnah, p. 94; Hitu,Wajiz p.321.] The Hasan Hadith differs from the Sahih in that it may include among its narrators a person or persons who belong to the fourth, fifth or sixth grades on the foregoing scale. It is a Hadith that falls between Sahih and Da'if, and although its narrators are known for truthfulness, they have not attained the highest degree of reliability and prominence. [146. Siba'i, Al-Sunnah, p. 95; Azami, Studies, p. 62.] Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 82 [144. Azami, The weak, or Daif, is a Hadith whose narrators do not possess the qualifications required in Sahih or Hasan. It is called weak owi...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13