A new way is to sequence the whole genome and not

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Unformatted text preview: RNA 33 Thursday, December 6, 12 PCR and phylogenetic analysis of rRNA genes DNA extraction PCR predict the biochemical processes and pathway of that organism Sequence the whole genome Predict functions by comparison to other organisms 34 Thursday, December 6, 12 Aphid symbiont genomes ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID SYNTHESIZING MACHINE 35 Thursday, December 6, 12 Symbiosis between Buchnera and aphids Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - Symbiosis between bacteria and aphids? 36 Thursday, December 6, 12 Symbiosis between Xylella and sharpshooters Organism Organism Class of symbiosis A B in exchange for the sugar from the host bacteria secretes essential amino acid for the host to use Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - Symbiosis between bacteria and aphids? 37 Thursday, December 6, 12 Examples of mutualisms discussed in class • Eukaryotic organelles (plastids and mitochondria) ^metabolically incompetent in order to function they need partner: photosynthesize (free-living bacteria or endosymbiotic) • Secondary symbioses (eukaryote with another eukaryote) • Lichens (fungi and photosynthetic microbe) • Coral & dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) • Ant - fungus farming • Pogonophoran worms and chemosynthetic bacteria ^tube warm • Legumes and N2 fixing bacteria • Herbivores and cellulolytic gut microbes 39 Thursday, December 6, 12 Chemosymbionts Thursday, December 6, 12 Lecture 36 Outline • Grapes and Their Problems • How Pierce’s Disease Gets Around • Phloem, Aphids and Their Symbionts • Xylem, Sharpshooters and Their Symbionts 41 Thursday, December 6, 12 Glassy winged sharpshooter GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Generalized Lifecycle 100 Adults 80 Egg masses A Serious Threat to California Agriculture 60 • Obligate xylem feeder • Transmits Xylella between plants 40 • Much like mosquitoes transmit malarial pathogen 20 Nov. Sept. July May Mar. Jan. 0 Glassy-winged sharpshooters overwinter as adult...
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