StudyGuide-02-S - BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec. A-B,D-G : Dr....

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BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec. A-B,D-G :: Dr. Liang :: Study Guide 02 for Lecture 03 Page 1 of 4 KEYTERMS 01. Species: a group of organisms with similar structural and functional characteristics that in nature breed only with one another and have a close common ancestry 02. Genus: group of species that are similar enough to be obviously related; a taxonomic group composed of related similar species 03. Phenetic Species: a way to describe species by organizing characteristics; citrus fruits 04. Biological Species: species defined by mating test; a species consists of one or more populations whose members can interbreed to produce fertile offspring and cannot interbreed with individuals of other species; problem is that many species cannot reproduce 05. Eukaryotes: an organism whose cells possess organelles surrounded by membranes 06. Prokaryotes: a cell that lacks nuclei and other membrane-bounded organelles; the archaea and bacteria 07. Taxonomy: the science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms 08. Systematics: the scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their natural (evolutionary) relationships 09. Taxon (Taxa): a taxonomic grouping at any level 10. Phylogeny: “origin of groups”; the series changes by which a given taxon evolved from its ancestors; the evolutionary history of a species or other taxonomic group 11. Cladistics: set of quantitative methods and concepts for building evolutionary or phylogenetic trees based on recency of common ancestry rather than degree of structural similarity -petal color, petal number, leaf number, etc. 12. Cladogram: phylogenetic tree produced by cladistics; a diagram that illustrates evolutionary relationships based on the principles of cladistics 13. Clade: branch in tree of life; consists of an originating taxon and all its descendant taxa 14. Monophyletic: said of a group consisting of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor 15. Polyphyletic: said of a group consisting of organisms that evolved from two or more difference ancestors 16. Lineage: descent group that can demonstrate common descent from an ancestor QUESTIONS 01. When we define biological species, we use mating test. Why in some cases, the mating test is not
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BOT 131 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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StudyGuide-02-S - BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec. A-B,D-G : Dr....

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