mediaviolencefactsheet - Copy - Copy (2)

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Unformatted text preview: writings. His main writing contributions were to the introduction, overview of the research, and theoretical section. Leonard Berkowitz contributed in multiple ways (phone and email discussions, the November meeting, writing and reference suggestions), particularly in regard to the introduction, overview of the research, and theoretical section. Craig Anderson initially dealt principally with the overview of the research and the theoretical, interventions, and discussion sections, but later took the lead in updating and revising the panel's report into its present form. Edward Donnerstein, Neil Malamuth, and Daniel Linz focused primarily on the sections discussing moderators and media use and content, although Malamuth also contributed to the theoretical section. James Johnson joined mainly in the preparation of the overview of the research. Ellen Wartella contributed mainly to the sections on media use and content and interventions. Generally, though, there was considerably more polishing of multiple sections by multiple people than this brief listing suggests. In other words, all made essential contributions to the entire project. 7 Media Violence THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA VIOLENCE ON YOUTH CONTENTS Summary Introduction Overview of Empirical Research on Media Violence and Aggression Dramatic Television and Movies Studies on Television News Violence Studies of Music Videos and Music Lyrics Studies of Video Games Studies of Internet Participation Meta-Analyses Combined Across Media Type Summary of Empirical Research Theoretical Explanations Observational Learning and Imitation Priming and Automatization of Aggressive Schematic Processing Arousal and Excitation Transfer Emotional Desensitization Research on Moderator Effects Viewer Characteristics Media Content Characteristics Social Environment Summary and a Caveat Research on Media Use and Content Children's Access to Media in the Home The Violent Content of Media Factors Affecting Children's Exposure to Violent Content Research on Interventions Changing Attitudes Encouraging Parental Monitoring and Guidance Providing Media Education Discussion Major Research Findings Implications Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth, & Wartella 8 SUMMARY Research on violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. The effects appear larger for milder than for more severe forms of aggression, but the effects on severe forms of violence are also substantial (r = .13 to .32) when compared with effects of other violence risk factors or medical effects deemed important by the medical community (e.g., effect of aspirin on heart attacks). The research base is large; diverse in methods, samples, and media genres; and consistent in overall findings. The evidence is clearest within the most extensively researched domain, television and film violence. The growing body of video-game research yields essentially the same conclusions. Short-term exposure increases the likelihood of physically and verbally aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, and aggressive emotions. Recent large-scale longitudinal studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, including physical assaults and spouse abuse. Because extremely violent criminal behaviors (e.g., forcible rape, aggravated assault, homicide) are rare, new longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to estimate accurately how much habitual childhood exposure to media violence increases the risk for extreme violence. Well-supported theory delineates why and when exposure to media violence increases aggression and violence. Media violence produces short-term increases by priming existing aggressive scripts and cognitions, increasing physiological arousal, and triggering an automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviors. Media violence produces long-term effects via several types of learning processes leading to the acquisition of lasting (and automatically accessible) aggressive scripts, interpretational schemas, and aggression-supporting beliefs about social behavior; and by reducing individuals’ normal negative emotional responses to violence (i.e., desensitization). Media Violence 9 Certain characteristics of viewers (e.g., identification with aggressive characters), social environments (e.g., parental influences), and media content (e.g., attractiveness of the perpetrator) can influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression, but there are some inconsistencies in research results. This research also suggests some avenues for preventive intervention (e.g., parental supervision, interpretation, and control of children’s media use). However, extant research on moderators suggests that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Recent surveys reveal an extensive presence of violence in mo...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2013 for the course ELECTRICAL 205 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '13 term at American University in Cairo.

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