Unformatted text preview: (e.g., total time
spent watching television per week). In the few studies that have reported both types of measures
(e.g., Anderson & Dill, 2000, Study 1), the more specific measure of violent-media exposure
typically yielded a much higher correlation with aggressive or violent behavior than did the more
general measure of total media time. Nonetheless, because a high proportion of entertainment media
contains violence (see Research on Media Use and Content), it seems appropriate to include studies
that measured total media time only when they provide tests of media-violence hypotheses in
contexts where studies using the more specific measure of violent media exposure are lacking. For
both theoretical and empirical reasons, studies using the more general measures likely
underestimate the true association between media violence and aggressive-violent behavior.
2. Though these factors facilitate observational learning, none are necessary conditions for media
violence to have effects. For example, cartoon characters in television or video games are not very
realistic, but numerous randomized experiments have shown that exposure to violent cartoonish
behavior increases aggressive behavior.
3. This study assessed television viewing time, not time spent viewing violent television programs
specifically. Nonetheless, the reversal in the relation between age and effect size is very difficult to
explain, and suggests that the nuances of the developmental effects on the relation between
exposure to media violence and aggression are incompletely understood.
4. Data for this study came from a nationally representative sample of 1,090 children aged 2
through 7, for whom data were collected through face-to-face interviews with parents and
caregivers, and a nationally representative sample of 2,065 students in grades 3 through 12 (8-18
years old), who filled out in-class pencil-and-paper questionnaires with the assistance of trained
researchers. Media Violence 95 5. Data for this study came from telephone interviews conducted in April and May 2000 with 1,235
parents of children between the ages of 2 and 17 and 416 children between the ages of 8 and 16.
The samples were drawn through random digit dialing.
6. The APPC study examined use of all household media: TV (and cable access), computers (and
Internet access), VCRs, books and magazines, video games, stereos and CDs, and telephones. The
Kaiser study looked at all of these except print and telephone.
7. NTVS randomly sampled programs from 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.
8. Violence was defined as overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force, or the actual use of...
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- Spring '13
- The Land, media violence, Leonard Berkowitz