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mediaviolencefactsheet - Copy - Copy (2)

Media violence 95 5 data for this study came from

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Unformatted text preview: (e.g., total time spent watching television per week). In the few studies that have reported both types of measures (e.g., Anderson & Dill, 2000, Study 1), the more specific measure of violent-media exposure typically yielded a much higher correlation with aggressive or violent behavior than did the more general measure of total media time. Nonetheless, because a high proportion of entertainment media contains violence (see Research on Media Use and Content), it seems appropriate to include studies that measured total media time only when they provide tests of media-violence hypotheses in contexts where studies using the more specific measure of violent media exposure are lacking. For both theoretical and empirical reasons, studies using the more general measures likely underestimate the true association between media violence and aggressive-violent behavior. 2. Though these factors facilitate observational learning, none are necessary conditions for media violence to have effects. For example, cartoon characters in television or video games are not very realistic, but numerous randomized experiments have shown that exposure to violent cartoonish behavior increases aggressive behavior. 3. This study assessed television viewing time, not time spent viewing violent television programs specifically. Nonetheless, the reversal in the relation between age and effect size is very difficult to explain, and suggests that the nuances of the developmental effects on the relation between exposure to media violence and aggression are incompletely understood. 4. Data for this study came from a nationally representative sample of 1,090 children aged 2 through 7, for whom data were collected through face-to-face interviews with parents and caregivers, and a nationally representative sample of 2,065 students in grades 3 through 12 (8-18 years old), who filled out in-class pencil-and-paper questionnaires with the assistance of trained researchers. Media Violence 95 5. Data for this study came from telephone interviews conducted in April and May 2000 with 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 2 and 17 and 416 children between the ages of 8 and 16. The samples were drawn through random digit dialing. 6. The APPC study examined use of all household media: TV (and cable access), computers (and Internet access), VCRs, books and magazines, video games, stereos and CDs, and telephones. The Kaiser study looked at all of these except print and telephone. 7. NTVS randomly sampled programs from 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. 8. Violence was defined as overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force, or the actual use of...
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