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The cross sectional studies also link violent music

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Unformatted text preview: d sexual activity. Still other studies have obtained correlations betweens music preferences and a variety of maladaptive behaviors. But these studies have not specifically linked lyric preferences to those behaviors. Summary of Studies of Exposure to Music Videos and Lyrics The experimental studies provide substantial evidence that watching violent music videos creates attitudes and beliefs that are relatively accepting of violence in young viewers, at least in the short term. The cross-sectional studies also link violent music videos to more long-term maladaptive attitudes and beliefs in youth, but provide no direct evidence on the reasons for this connection. Studies of music lyrics without video show less consistency, perhaps because of the methodological problems mentioned earlier. However, the better controlled experiments suggest that understandable violent lyrics can increase aggressive thinking and affect. There are no published longitudinal studies of the effects of violent music videos or violent lyrics without video. Such studies are clearly needed before a definitive conclusion about long-term effects of exposure to violent music videos and lyrics can be reached. Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth, & Wartella 34 Studies of Video Games Violent video games have recently surpassed violent music videos and even violent TV as a matter of concern to parents and policymakers. There are several reasons for this. First, children are spending an increasingly large amount of time playing video games. Second, a large portion of these games contain violence. Third, because the children playing these games are active participants rather than observers, they may be at increased risk of becoming aggressive themselves. The impact of exposure to violent video games has not been studied as extensively as the impact of exposure to TV or movie violence; however, on the whole, the results reported for video games to date are very similar to those obtained in the investigations of TV and movie violence (Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Anderson et al., in press). Randomized Experiments In several studies, children were randomly assigned to play violent or nonviolent video games and then were observed when given an opportunity to be aggressive. Most of these studies found that the violent game significantly increased youths’ aggressive behavior. For example, Irwin and Gross (1995) assessed physical aggression (e.g., hitting, shoving, pinching, pulling at clothes or hair, kicking) between boys who had just played either a violent or a nonviolent video game. Those who had played the violent video game were more physically aggressive toward peers. The average effect size (r) across six measures of physical aggression was .31. Also, several randomized experiments measured college students’ propensity to be physically aggressive (by delivering a mild shock or unpleasantly loud noise to someone who had provoked them) after they had played (or not played) a violent video game. For example, Bartholow and Anderson (2002) found that college students who had played a violent game subsequently delivered more than two and a half times as many high-intensity punishments as those who played a nonviolent video game. The effect of the violent game was significant for both women (r = .50) and men (r = .57). A number of randomized experiments have examined the effects of violent video games on Media Violence 35 aggressive thoughts, emotions, and physiological arousal. For example, Calvert and Tan (1994) had participants play the violent virtual reality game Dactyl Nightmare or engage in movements similar to those of Dactyl Nightmare players, and then used a procedure in which participants listed their thoughts to assess aggressive cognitions. The participants who had played the violent game generated significantly more aggressive thoughts than those who had simply mimicked its movements (r = .50). Other studies have found similar effects using a wide array of measures to assess aggressive thinking, including time taken to read aggressive and nonaggressive words (Anderson & Dill, 2000), aggressive content of written stories (Bushman & Anderson, 2002), and hostile explanations for hypothetical unpleasant interpersonal events (Kirsh, 1998). Several randomized experiments have tested the effects of video games specifically selected to differ in violent content but not in arousal or affective properties. For example, Anderson et al. (in press) tested the effects of 10 video games on physiological arousal and several affect-relevant dimensions, including frustration, difficulty, and enjoyment (Experiment 1), and then selected two games that were similar on these measures but different in violent content. In two subsequent experiments, the violent game significantly increased aggressive behavior relative to the nonviolent game (rs = .25 and .19), demonstrating that the effects of violent video games on aggression are independent of the games' effects on arousal or affect. Cross-Sectional Surveys Several survey studies...
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