mediaviolencefactsheet - Copy - Copy (2)

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Unformatted text preview: years later, after he graduated from high school (r = .31, N = 184, p < .01; Eron et al., 1972; Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder, & Huesmann, 1977). At both times, aggressive behavior was measured primarily by peer nomination, a technique in which the youths answer a series of questions about their classmates' aggressiveness. The researchers assessed both physical aggression (e.g., “Who pushes and shoves other kids?”) and verbal aggression (e.g., “Who makes up stories and lies to get other kids in trouble?”). The longitudinal correlation remained above .25 even when there was statistical control of other potentially relevant factors, such as initial aggressiveness of the child, IQ of the child, family socioeconomic status (SES), parents’ aggressiveness, and parents’ punishment and nurturance of the child. Furthermore, additional statistical analyses evaluating the connection Media Violence 25 between scores at the two ages cast doubt on the possibility that the longitudinal relation was merely a consequence of highly aggressive youth liking to watch more violence than their less aggressive counterparts. Aggressiveness at age 8 did not predict viewing of violence at age 18. In contrast to the findings obtained for the boys (and with the results obtained in other investigations—see Huesmann & Eron, 1986; Huesmann, Lagerspetz, & Eron, 1984; Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, & Eron, 2003), the findings for the girls revealed no relation between exposure to TV violence and aggressive behavior. In a longitudinal study of boys and girls ages 7 to 16 from two Midwestern cities (conducted by the NBC television company), Milavsky, Kessler, Stipp, and Rubens (1982) examined the effects of television violence on aggression using measures that included serious physical aggression and delinquency. The youth were surveyed up to five times during a 3-year period (1970-1973). Crosssectional correlations between viewing of TV violence and concurrent levels of aggression were obtained for the total sample within each time of assessment; they were significant and comparable to those found in most other cross-sectional studies, that is, .13 to .23 for boys and .21 to .37 for girls. The investigators then examined the longitudinal correlations between aggressive behavior at one point in time and TV violence viewing at an earlier time, while statistically controlling for earlier aggression. They examined these correlations over 15 intervals ranging from 5 months to 3 years apart. For elementary-school boys, 12 of the 15 correlations were positive, although only 2 were statistically significant. Ten of the 15 correlations were positive for girls, although only 3 were statistically significant. A comparable analysis carried out in a subsample of teenage boys showed a positive correlation in 6 of 8 cases, but only 1 such “lag” yielded a significant effect. In all cases, adding SES as a covariate reduced the significant effects further. However, it should be noted that these predictive analyses were based on subsamples from which the research team had deleted the data of many of the most aggressive children (25% of boys and 16% of girls in the Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth, & Wartella 26 initial sample), because they supposedly had not reported their TV viewing accurately. Given that highly aggressive youths appear to be more likely than others to be aggressively stimulated by violent scenes, it may well be that discarding these data artifically decreased the reported effects. In the late 1970s, Huesmann and his colleagues began a longitudinal study of the effects of TV violence in five countries (Huesmann & Eron, 1986; Huesmann, Lagerspetz, & Eron, 1984; Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, & Eron, 2003). Representative samples of middle-class youth in each country were examined at three times as they grew from 6 to 8 or from 8 to 11 years of age. Aggression was assessed by peer nominations in response to questions about physical and verbal behaviors, among other things. The cross-sectional correlations between aggression and overall exposure to TV violence were positive and small to moderate in all countries, with significant correlations being obtained for both boys and girls in the United States. However, the extent to which earlier viewing of TV violence predicted later aggression varied substantially between the genders and among the countries. In the United States, girls’ viewing of TV violence had a significant effect (r = .17, p < .05) on their later aggression even after taking into account their early levels of aggression, SES, and scholastic achievement. For the boys in the U.S. sample, TV violence alone did not predict later aggression, but those who had watched violent programming frequently in their early childhood and who also reported a strong identification with aggressive TV characters were generally regarded by their peers as the most aggressive (r = .19, p < .05). Fifteen years after the study started, more than 300 participants in the U.S. sample were reinterviewed w...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2013 for the course ELECTRICAL 205 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '13 term at American University in Cairo.

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