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StudyGuide-08-S - BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec A-B E-G Dr Liang...

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BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec. A-B, E-G :: Dr. Liang :: StudyGuide 08 Page 1 of 4 KEYTERMS 01. Ribosome: a cellular organelle that is the site of protein synthesis 02. Nucleic acid: a large, complex organic molecule composed of nucleotides; the two nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic (DNA) and ribonucleic (RNA) acid 03. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a nucleic acid present in a cell’s chromosomes that contains genetic information 04. RNA (ribonucleic acid): a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule that is necessary for protein synthesis; there are three forms of RNA: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA 05. Nucleotide: basic unit of DNA and RNA; a molecule composed of a phosphate, sugar, and a base; one of the subunits of nucleic acids 06. Genes: a discrete unit of hereditary information that usually specifies a polypeptide (protein) 07. Proteins: a large, complex organic compound composed of amino acid subunits 08. Polypeptide chains: a chain of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds; a protein molecule consists of one or more chains of polypeptides 09. Amino acids: basic unit of a protein; an organic compound containing an amino group (-NH 2 ) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); amino acids may be linked to form protein molecules 10. mRNA or message RNA: RNA that specifies the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide 11. Codon: a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies an individual amino
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