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Unformatted text preview: BOT131 Spring 2008 Sec. A-B, D-G :: Dr. Liang :: Study Guide 10 Page 1 of 4 KEYTERMS 01. Biotechnology: application of biology to the creation of products for human use, including particularly the genetic manipulation of organisms to give them new capabilities or improved characters 02. Plasmid: a small circular DNA molecule that carries genes separates from the main DNA of a prokaryote; can reproduce themselves 03. Recombinant DNA: any DNA molecule made by combining genes from different organisms 04. Restriction Enzyme: an enzyme used in recombinant DNA technology to cleave DNA at a specific bade sequence 05. Restriction Site: the special nucleotide sequence where the DNA is broken 06. DNA ligase: an enzyme that connects the sticky ends of the DNA that are complementary 07. DNA polymerase: an enzyme complex that catalyzes DNA replication by adding nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA 08. RNA polymerase: an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA molecules from DNA templates 09. Reverse Transcriptase: an enzyme produced by retroviruses that catalyzes the production of DNA using RNA as a template 10. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): a method by which a targeted DNA fragment is amplified in vitro to produce millions of copies 11. Vector: an agent, such as plasmid or virus, that transfers DNA from one organism to another 12. Transformation: change in genotype of bacteria by the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of extracellular DNA; changing by the incorporation of apiece of foreign DNA; a prokaryote that takes in a plasmid carrying recombinant DNA is said to be transformed 13. Clone: the exact genetic replica of an organism 14. Cloning: the nucleus of a somatic cell is removed; the nucleus of an egg cell is removed 15. GMO: genetically modified organism; an organism that has had its genes intentionally manipulated 16. Bioinformatics: the storage, retrieval, and comparison of biological information, particularly 16....
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- Spring '08