04 publickeycrypto

# G special circuit board and then the rsa chip which

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Unformatted text preview: to work on efficient special-purpose The implementation (e.g. special circuit board, and then the “RSA chip”, which did RSA in 0.4 seconds) to prove practicality of RSA. IBM PC debuts in 1981 and Moore’s Law to the rescue---software IBM now runs 2000x faster… also, software and the Web rule…now ; Speed differs on types of operations, (i.e. encryption, decryption, Speed digital signing and signature verification), as well as relatively size of e and d ; and e.g. with e = 3, encryption and signature verification are e.g. 3, encryption typically much (5-10 times) faster than decryption and digital much than signing respectively ; Why not make d = 3 instead ? instead Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Diffie-Hellman key-exchange enables two users to establish a shared secret key securely using an open/ public communications channel. YA XA Public channel: anyone can listen to YB XB = (YB)XA mod q = aXBXA mod q =Secret = aXAXB mod q = (YA) XB mod q Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange enables two users to establish a shared secret key via an open/ enables public communications channel. Choose a prime number q, and q and is a primitive root of Choose q ); both made public ); Alice randomly chooses x in {2, …, q-1} as her secret; Alice send Bob x (mod q) (mod Bob randomly chooses y in {2, …, q-1} as his secret; Bob send Alice y (mod q) (mod Shared key KAB = (y)x = (x)y Shared Diffie-Hellman Example users Alice & Bob who wish to swap keys: users agree on prime q=353 and =3 agree q=353 and select random secret keys: select A chooses xA=97, B chooses xB=233 chooses =97, chooses =233 compute respective public keys: compute 97 yA=3 mod 353 = 40 (Alice) mod (Alice) 233 yB=3 mod 353 = 248 (Bob) mod (Bob) compute shared session key as: compute xA 97 KAB= yB mod 353 = 248 mod 353 = 160 mod 248 xB 233 KAB= yA mod 353 = 40 mod 353 = 160 mod 40 (Alice) (Alice) (Bob) (Bob) How secure is Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange ? It relies on the fact that “Discrete Logarithm” is a computationally It difficult problem, i.e.: Knowing that YA = aXA mod q and the values of a, q and YA It is still computationally difficult to find XA But still subjected to Man-in-the-Middle Attack !! Because Alice does But not know for sure if it’s actually Bob who is sending her the YB Remedy: Published those public numbers, i.e. a, q and YA , YB in Remedy: in a “Trusted, publicly accessible directory for each person” This also allows Alice to send Bob an encrypted message This even when he is currently offline. But how can you be sure that you are looking at the directory But hosted by the “true trusted directory server” ? Man-in-the-middle (MITM) Attack DH protocol: DH 1. Alice -> Bob: x (mod q) (mod 2. Bob -> Alice: y (mod q) (mod Attack scenario Attack Vulnerability: lack of what? Vulnerability: Other Public Key Algorithms 1978: Merkle/Hellman (Knapsack), subsequently found to be insecure 1978: 1985: El Gamal (Discrete logarithm Problem) 1985: 1985: Miller/Koblitz (Elliptic curves) 1985: 1991: Digital Signature Standard (DSS) (Discrete logarithm Problem) 1991: And many others, too El Gamal Ell Gamal can be considered to be a generalization of Diffie-Hellman key-exchange E algorithm => still relies on the difficulty of doing discrete logarithm: y = x mod q mod q is prime ; is and x are +ve integers < q and is a primitive root of q and 0 < x < q-1 and is Public key = (y, , q) ; Private key = x Public Encryption of plaintext message M (< q ): Encryp...
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## This note was uploaded on 04/15/2013 for the course IE IERG4130 taught by Professor Zhangkehuan during the Spring '13 term at CUHK.

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