Lecture 4 Energy

Lecture 4 Energy - Energy- 2 Energy sources Fossil fuels...

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Energy- 2 Energy sources Fossil fuels Coal Natural gas Oil Nuclear energy Renewable energy sources Solar Biomass Hydrogen Others
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Energy sources Energy is the vital force powering business, manufacturing, and the transportation of goods and services to serve the American and world economies. Energy supply and demand plays an increasingly vital role in our national security and the economic output of our nation. It is not surprising that the United States spends over 500 billion dollars annually on energy. Prior to the 1800s, wood was almost the only fuel being used; waterwheels and windmills were also used for converting the kinetic energy of blowing wind and flowing water to mechanical energy. By 1900, about 95% of the world’s energy production came from the burning of coal.
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Today:
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Fossil fuels – coal, oil and natural gas -- currently provide more than 85% of all the energy consumed in the United States, nearly two-thirds of our electricity, and virtually all of our transportation fuels. Moreover, it is likely that the nation’s reliance on fossil fuels to power an expanding economy will actually increase over at least the next two decades even with aggressive development and deployment of new renewable and nuclear technologies. Because our economic health depends on the continued availability of reliable and affordable fossil fuels, the Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy oversees two major fossil fuel efforts: 1) Emergency stockpiles of crude oil and heating oil. The Department is responsible for maintaining the readiness of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. In the event of a major supply interruption, the President could order emergency stocks from either of these two reserves to be released into the market. 2) Research and Development of future fossil energy technologies. Innovative technologies can make the future production and use of fossil fuels more efficient and environmentally cleaner. Energy’s Fossil Energy program, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is developing a full array of new technologies that can locate and produce oil and gas beyond the reach of today’s technologies, overcome the environmental challenges of using coal, and extract clean-burning hydrogen from fossil fuels. In addition, the Office of Fossil Energy supports several initiatives to develop clean fuels from hydrogen and cleaner burning coal. Fossil fuels
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Coal It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions, slightly ahead of petroleum and about double that of natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining (surface mining). Coal is ranked by carbon content, from low grade peat and lignite
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Caro/kopper during the Spring '08 term at Hendrix.

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Lecture 4 Energy - Energy- 2 Energy sources Fossil fuels...

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