Study Guide

Study Guide - Study Guide Chapter 13. Water 1) Unique...

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Study Guide Chapter 13. Water 1) Unique properties of water: solid water is less dense than liquid water; high heat capacity of water; high density of water; high boiling point (low vapor pressure); high heat of vaporization; water tends to dissolve polar and ionic species. Definition of density, approximate density of liquid water at room temperature, definitions of heat capacity, heat of vaporization. Hydrogen bonds between water molecules explain these unusual properties. 2) Distribution of water on earth (mainly salty water, 97.2% of the total water on earth is in the oceans- our textbook mentions 98%, but other sources mention 97.2%; 1.8% is fresh water frozen in ice caps and glaciers; the rest of the water is fresh water available for human use, mainly as groundwater (0.9% of the total) and a minor fraction as freshwater in lakes and rivers. The water cycle: evaporation-precipitation-runoff processes. 3) Natural contaminants of water: gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide), dust, nitric acid, dissolved minerals (anions and cations), organic matter. 4) Sources of water for humans: surface water and groundwater. Definition, replenishing processes. 5) Contamination of water supplies by pathogenic microorganisms (examples), by acids (main source of acid rain, know the reaction of neutralization of acid rain by calcium carbonate), by oxygen depletion (definition of biochemical oxygen demand or BOD, eutrophication and algal bloom, anaerobic decay), groundwater contamination by nitrates (main source of nitrates) and volatile organic chemicals (main source of volatile organic chemicals). 6) Water treatment plants: water treatment steps (pumping and containment, flocculation,
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Study Guide - Study Guide Chapter 13. Water 1) Unique...

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