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Markers tumor definition tumor cell markers include

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Unformatted text preview: – – – Local increase in cell number Loss of normal arrangement of cells Variation in shape and size (from normal) Increase in nuclear density » Increases in DNA – Increase mitotic activity Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Definition – Tumor cell markers include – Hormones, Enzymes, Genes, Antigens, Antibodies Clinical Usefulness – No ideal markers but indicate a potential tumor – Other diagnostic methods are required for diagnosis Tumor Cell Markers Tumor HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) - protein receptor found on breast tumor cells cells – Steroid receptors (estrogen/progesterone) – Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Hormones Ectopic hormone production – Production of hormones by tumors of “nonendocrine Production origin” origin” – Example » Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Well known tumor marker – Example - chorionic carcinoma (embryonic-placental cancer) » Normally produced during pregnancy Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Enzymes Cathespin-D – – Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Genes P53 (tumor suppressor gene) – Mutated p53 in 50% of tumors – If p53 is mutated it will not block tumor formation Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Genes Ph1 (Philadelphia chromosome) – First chromosome marker – Chronic myelocytic leukemia » 95% of patients with this gene > 20 oncogenes have been identified Clinical usefulness – Specific chromosome markers are useful and diagnostic (Ph1) – Oncogene indentification remains new but can provide Oncogene evidence for a potential of cancer evidence Causes of Cancer - Genetics Causes Gene/Environmental Interaction Environnmental agents – Can increase the frequency of mutations in somatic Can cells - cause cancer cells Evidence suppo...
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