Cancer14BB

Markers tumor definition tumor cell markers include

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: – – – Local increase in cell number Loss of normal arrangement of cells Variation in shape and size (from normal) Increase in nuclear density » Increases in DNA – Increase mitotic activity Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Definition – Tumor cell markers include – Hormones, Enzymes, Genes, Antigens, Antibodies Clinical Usefulness – No ideal markers but indicate a potential tumor – Other diagnostic methods are required for diagnosis Tumor Cell Markers Tumor HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) - protein receptor found on breast tumor cells cells – Steroid receptors (estrogen/progesterone) – Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Hormones Ectopic hormone production – Production of hormones by tumors of “nonendocrine Production origin” origin” – Example » Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Well known tumor marker – Example - chorionic carcinoma (embryonic-placental cancer) » Normally produced during pregnancy Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Enzymes Cathespin-D – – Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Genes P53 (tumor suppressor gene) – Mutated p53 in 50% of tumors – If p53 is mutated it will not block tumor formation Tumor Cell Markers Tumor Genes Ph1 (Philadelphia chromosome) – First chromosome marker – Chronic myelocytic leukemia » 95% of patients with this gene > 20 oncogenes have been identified Clinical usefulness – Specific chromosome markers are useful and diagnostic (Ph1) – Oncogene indentification remains new but can provide Oncogene evidence for a potential of cancer evidence Causes of Cancer - Genetics Causes Gene/Environmental Interaction Environnmental agents – Can increase the frequency of mutations in somatic Can cells - cause cancer cells Evidence suppo...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/18/2013 for the course BIO 205 taught by Professor Dr.cady during the Spring '11 term at Bradley.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online