Telomere caps at the end of a chromosome shortens

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Unformatted text preview: ivisions they induce After senescence and crisis senescence Transformation Transformation Mechanisms of Senescence and Crisis In Normal Cells “Telomere caps” – At the end of a chromosome » Shortens after each chromosome Shortens duplication (cell division) duplication » During “S” phase of cell cycle – Induces senescence & crisis Induces How can cancer cells continue How to divide? to Telomere Marker Telomere (Antibody to Telomere) Transformation Transformation Telomeres and Cancer Telomeres Cancer cells - immortalized cells – » Gene codes for the telomerase enzyme that rebuilds the Gene telomere telomere – Allows tumor cells to divide endlessly – Resulting in immortalized cancer cell Tumor Classification and Nomenclature Nomenclature Cancers named according to the tissue in which Cancers they develop they – – – – – Carcinomas - epithelial cells Sarcomas - connective tissue Lymphomas - lymphatic tissue Gliomas - nervous tissue Leukemias - bone marrow Tumor Classification and Nomenclature Nomenclature Carcinoma “in situ” – Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin squamous – Tumor cells have not broken through basement Tumor membrane of the epithelial cells membrane – Can be confused with benign tumors How long do these remain “preinvasive” – Unknown - can remain for years or short term Carcinoma In situ Carcinoma Location – Cervix, skin, oral cavity, esophagus, bronchus Location - glandular epithelium – Stomach, endometrium, breast, large bowel Colon Polyp (adenoma) Colon Characteristics of Cancer Cells Characteristics Highly variable but general characteristics Highly include include –...
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