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Alt.Immunity3BB

modes of transmission transplacental perinatal

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Unformatted text preview: ion children orphaned by AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Epidemiology (continued…..) – Modes of transmission » Transplacental » Perinatal routes to newborns » Through semen or other fluids during homosexual or Through heterosexual contact heterosexual » Blood transmission » Medical used blood products » Mosquitoes do not transmit AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Etiology and Pathogenesis – AIDS caused by a virus » Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) » Theory - from chimpanzees to humans 1930 – HIV is a “retrovirus” » Genetic information carried on RNA (not DNA) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome HIV Virus HIV HIV Virus Infecting Cells HIV Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Etiology and Pathogenesis continued – If the cell is “activated” the host cell will produce If large amounts of HIV virus large – If cell is “not active” the virus can remain latent for If years (entire life of host) years Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome CCR5 receptor - normal function – Important in binding chemokines help cells of the Important immune system move to sites of injury or infection immune CCR5 termed a co-receptor for HIV Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Etiology and Pathogenesis continued – CD4 antigen on the surface of T helper lymphocytes CD4 is the primary receptor for HIV is » Cells in the CNS also express CD4 and are infected by Cells HIV HIV – HIV found to attach to “dendritic cells” located in the HIV skin and mucus-linings of the body skin » Dendritic cells are immune cells located at the skin Dendritic Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Dendritic cells enter the body and activate T cells Dendritic found in the lymph nodes found Activated virus kills CD4 cells – unknown mechanism as dead CD4 cells are not unknown infected infected Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Syndrome Etiology and Pathogenesis continued – CD4 cells lost strongly effects the immune system » Lower response to infectious pathogens and some malignant tumors – Note: HIV-2 identified in 1987 » Similar etiology but may be less destructive to the immune system (new slide) T - Helper cell (CD-4+) (new General Function T - Helper cell - helps immune syste...
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