Comm and Media Studies Study GuideChapter 1•Communication →systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings•Process – ongoing •Systemic - •Symbols – includes nonverbal behaviors too oCreate reality2 levels of meaning1.content level – literal 2.relationship level – interpret based on •CarreyoCommunication structures our realityoRitual View – process of comm. Not just practice ofHighly influenced how meia scholars study comm. TransmtionHow ppl engae with knowledgeHow news comminucated- between readersHow structures our reality•Transmission ritual – before comm. Depended how long infor takes to transmitoChanged with railroadsoComm. Traveled point A to BSapir•Look at society as network of members and cultural baters oEvery single cultural act involves communications3 main techniques of primary comm•Language – includes verbal & written•Symbols•Physical conditions – gestures and context•Like carrey, emphasizing how comm. Doesn’t just apply, but constitutes societyCOMM MODELSLinear Models (laswell)•One way, one person acts on another
•Too simplisticHarold Laswell- answers: Who? Says What? Through which model? To whom? With what effect?Shannon & Weaver•Transmission- info source, transmitter, *medium) receiver, destinationoAdded noise- anything that can interfere with messageoEx: distraction, bad signalSchramm’s interactive model •Added feedback•Encoder, source, decoder•Not just A to B, B to A
Transactional Model•Time – comm. Changes over time•Dif from transactional model bc they failed to see that everyone sends and receives simultaneously Wood’s transactional model- people simultaneously send and receive messages. Time dimension occurs within systemsHistory of Human Comm•Oral →pictoral →ideogrammatic (pictures that represent meaning/first form of writing) →alphabetic →typographic printing press) →telegraphic →telephonic →modern7 major areas of research/teaching1.Intrapersonal - ourselves2.Interpersonal – between people3.Group - 4.Organizational5.Public6.Mass7.interculturalCHAPTER 2PECEPTION AND COMMUNICATION Perception: an active process of selecting, organizing and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities•Selection- the act of narrowing one’ attention to that which is important at the moment. It is influenced by:
oExtreme qualities that draw attentionoThe acuity of our sensesoChange or variationoOur motives, needs and expectations -> we usually perceive what we expect to perceiveoExpectations •Organization: the act of structuring and arranging one’s perceptions in order to make meaning of the selections.
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