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Unformatted text preview: 11/2/07 Friday, November 02, 2007 11:07 AM Class Notes Themes: The war experience at the front and home Topics: The outbreak of the war and its fighting Soldiers lives Attitudes toward the war at home National economies I. The war and its start a. The outbreak: JuneAugust 1914 i. June 28, 1914: assassination of Franz Ferdinand ii. 2 main t b. 2 main theaters of battle, plus several subsidiary ones i. Western Front ii. Eastern Front, but also iii. Middle East, Italian, Balkan, Pacific, Sea, and Air Fronts 1. First real use of planes as instruments is during this war Soldiers' Experiences a. Changing attitudes i. Soldiers went into this war thinking it was a heroic opportunity to show their manhood. Thought it would only take 3 or 4 months to sort out, and everyone would go home. ii. Front conditions and experiences 1. Christmas of 1914 truce Soccer games beginning in no man's land. Officers agreed not to fight on Christmas and ate and drank together. Still humanity about individual relationships that is destroyed by the fact that the war kept going for years. This would never happen again. 2. Gas warfare chemical warfare, deployed over opposing trenches. Lose their last human vestiges with the gas masks. Psychologically difficult for men to put up with because it is so different from anything they have ever put up with. II. iii. III. The Home Front a. Reception of War at first wellreceived b. Enthusiasm: Landslide majority vote for the war. Italy and Russia (socialists) are the only ones to vote against the war. i. Fight between nationalism and internationalism with the socialists. Nationalism seems to always win. Failure of socialism to stop the war. ii. Huge crowds in Berlin to cheer for nationalistic opportunity c. Volunteers vs. conscription (draft) i. Most countries had draft. ii. Britain is able to field their army with volunteers until 1916. There was enough enthusiasm at home to do this. In 1916, they decided to create a bigger, stronger army. d. Near and far from the action i. In Scotland, Italy, etc. no direct effect on you ii. All those people in Northern France, Russia, Eastern Germany experienced the war. Attitudes are stronger iii. Air warfare's effect 1. Terrorizes populations 2. Dropping from planes outside the fighting lines iv. Propaganda and information control 1. Every letter was censored. Government didn't want people to know how grim the trenches were. You could talk about victories all you wanted. Censored so well in Germany, that when they surrendered, no one knew why. v. Patience early on changes into frustration as conditions get worse. 1. Rationing and shortages. Millions of men have to be fed fighting. a. Went well in Britain b. The further east you went, the more shortages there were. There was not access to enough supply. 2. Worker unrest a. Workers are no longer excited. Inflation is high everywhere, so real wages are low and they are starting to realize it. 3. Disease people on small diets. Average German was eating 1000 calories a day. People getting sick easily because their systems were run down. Mutinies in 1917 Men lost faith in their officers. Some villages lost half of their men in a week. All Quiet on the Western Front Remarque. How close these men got and the difficulties they put up with together. Published in the 1920s. 3. a. IV. V. Economies a. Total war planned economies i. Economies are completely regeared to provide armies with what they need. Takes a lot more planning b. Mobilization of labor i. Unions have greater influence than ever. We're work longer days if you pay us even more. Governments are desperate. c. Shortages of labor i. Jobs for all 1. Effect on social inequality ii. Women work outside the home 1. Even in industries where women hadn't typically represented before. 2. Before the war, 18% of workforce is women. By 1918, 36%, largely in metals and chemical industry. 3. Less wage than men. 4. Proving what men didn't want to see: women could do just as well as men. iii. Shortages 1. The French case relied on British and Americans to get through it The Fronts a. Western Front i. Schlieffen Plan fails Germans hoped to get everyone in the West first, but they ended up surrounded by two fronts, trench warfare. ii. British and French finally start to work together iii. American entry is key Fresh resources b. Eastern Front i. Mobility ii. Russian patterns of attack iii. Russian weaknesses c. Italian Front i. May 1915 ii. Territorial interests d. Balkan Front i. Solonkia? e. Ottoman Front i. Strength gets distracted Flu pandemic happened just after the war. They were run down after years of war, and they were just starting to recover ii. iii. iv. Relations with Germany Caucasus Gallipoli One of the most humiliating defeats for British and French. Largely fought by Australians and Kiwis. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Bobroff during the Fall '07 term at Walden University.
- Fall '07
- All Quiet on the Western Front