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On the Design of Secure Communication Framework for Blockchain-Based Internet of Intelligent Battlefield Things Environment Mohammad Wazid , Member, IEEE , Ashok Kumar Das , Senior Member, IEEE , Sachin Shetty , Senior Member, IEEE , and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues § , Fellow, IEEE Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun 248 002, India [email protected] Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032, India [email protected], [email protected] Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center, Department of Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering, Old Dominion University, Suffolk, VA 23435, USA [email protected] § Instituto de Telecomunicac ¸˜oes, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal [email protected] Abstract —On the basis of the Internet of Things (IoT) applica- tions, several variants such as Internet of Energy (IoE), Internet of Vehicles (IoV), Internet of Drones (IoD), Internet of Medical Things (Internet of Health, IoMT) and Internet of Intelligent Battlefield Things (IoIBT) are developed. The smart devices involved in IoT can also utilize artificial intelligence algorithm (i.e., machine learning) to make the communication environment more effective and efficient. Intelligent Battlefield Things (IBT) communication environment is an example of that kind. It consists of smart and intelligent devices (i.e., drones), which monitor the activities of the enemies and retaliate accordingly. Hence, we need very less or negligible human involvement. IBT communication environment is very suitable for the purpose of battlefield communication (i.e., war zone, target tracking and hitting, border area surveillance and retaliation). However, IBT has certain drawbacks, because it may be vulnerable to different types of attacks, such as replay, man-in-the-middle, impersonation, data modification, data leakage attacks, etc. Therefore, it becomes essential to provide a security mechanism to secure the communication that happens in IBT environment. To achieve this purpose, we propose a secure communication framework for the blockchain of IBT environment. In addition, the benefits of applications of blockchain of IBT are discussed. The issues and challenges of blockchain of IBT environment are also highlighted. Finally, a security analysis of the proposed framework is conducted to depict its resilience against possible attacks. Index Terms —Internet of Intelligent Battlefield Things (IoIBT), blockchain, security, privacy, authentication. I. I NTRODUCTION IoT is a kind of communication environment consisting of interrelated computing devices, digital and mechanical ma- chines, various objects, people or animals which have uniquely assigned identities (i.e., IP addresses make them capable to transfer data over a network without any human assistance) [1], [2]. The IoT devices produce enormous amount of data.

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