bio exam I study guide

bio exam I study guide - STUDY GUIDE EXAM I...

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STUDY GUIDE EXAM I CELLS TISSUES ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEMS INDIVIDUALS *Organ systems in plants= shoots (above ground) and roots (below ground) Tissue Systems 1. epidermis- outer layer; protects young parts of plants 2. vascular- transports 3. ground- middle of organ (fills space) *pith=internal *cortex=external 5 Major Cell Types in Plants 1. phloem= sieve tube elements and companion cells 2. xylem= vessel elements and tracheids 3. sclerenchyma= fibers (common) and sclereids (rare) support/protect 4. collenchyma= support of primary tissues; unevenly thickened cell wall; no secondary growth *contains lignin- very hard, nearly indestructible, waterproof 5. parenchyma= stores food needed for photosynthesis in leaves (most common) Seeds 1. seed coat- thin outer covering that encloses the cotyledons and protects the embryo inside 2. cotyledons- stores food and is unusually large and tends to obscure the rest of the plant embryo 3. epicotyl- a pair of tiny, feathery looking leaves pressed flat against the inner surface of one of the cotyledons 4. hypocotyls- embryonic shoot 5. radicle- embryonic root Seedlings 1. hypocotyls- the segment of stem b/w the roots and the cotyledons 2. cotyledons- “seedling leaves”; store food that is used up as the seedling establishes itself 3. epicotyl- the shoot above the cotyledons 4. bud- at the tip of the epicotyl where new leaves and stem tissue are being produced by an apical meristem Shoot Apical Meristem 1. blade- leaf 2. petiole- connects blade to stem 3. node- the point at which leaves are attached 4. internode- stem segments in b/w nodes 5. axil- angle formed by leaf and stem 6. bud- embryonic shoot 7. axillary bud- potentional to form a vegetative branch 8. terminal bud- top of plant 9. leaf primordia- pair of developing leaves on opposite sides of the stem; expands rapidly and grow up over the actual tip of the stem 10. shoot apical meristem- relatively small, dome-shaped mass of cells at the apex of the stem
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11. axillary bud primodia- lumps of small, dark cells that will become the apical meristems for lateral branches located in the axil of each leaf primordium 12. protoderm- tissue that will give rise to the epidermis; outer most layer of cells 13. procambium- tissue that will differentiate into the vascular system of the leaves and stem; strand of dark cells down the center of the leaf primordial 14. ground meristem- tissue that will become the pith and cortex of the stem and mesophyll of the leaves Primary Growth *apical meristem supplies cells to grow in length *result of elongation A. Stem Anatomy 1. epidermis- outermost layer of cells that protects the plant 2. cortex- next layer of parenchyma cells located b/w the epidermis and the vascular bundles 3. vascular bundles- found beneath the cortex in the corners and are large *xylem- transports water and mineral nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant =tracheids all vascular plants
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bio exam I study guide - STUDY GUIDE EXAM I...

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