bio exam III study guide

bio exam III study guide - Exam III Study Guide Mendelian...

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Exam III Study Guide Mendelian Genetics 1. Inheritance or heredity - The transmission of traits from one generation to the next 2. Variation - Offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings 3. Genetics - The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation 4. genotype- the genetic makeup of an organism *allele- a certain type of gene *homozygous dominant- if an individual has the same dominant allele at a particular locus (AA) *homozygous recessive- if an individual has the same recessive allele at a particular locus (aa) *heterozygous- if an individual has 2 different alleles at a particular locus (Aa) 5. phenotype- the total physical appearance of the organism 6. inheritance is “particulate”- Parents pass on discrete units to children—genes - genes are stretches of DNA that code for proteins 7. Gregor Johann Mendel (1822–1884)- father of genetics 8. Hybridization - crossing of two “true breeding” varieties 9. alternative versions of genes (alleles) account for variations in inherited characters 10. one allele from each parent 11. If the alleles differ, the dominant one will determine the organisms appearance (it’s phenotype ) 12. Punnett square - useful way for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup
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13. probability- ratio of the number of times a particular event occurs to the number of trials during which the event could occur 14. Product rule = probability that two independent events occur (events that have no influence each other) is the product of their probability 15. Sum rule = probability of two mutually exclusive events (events that cannot occur together) is the sum of the individual probabilities Genes are on different chromosomes. Genes are on the same chromosomes, but there is crossing over 16. Crossing Over- Homologous chromosomes exchange parts - Results in four gametes that have genetically unique chromosomes
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- Aids in independent assortment - Genes close to each other=Dependent assortment likely - Genes far from each other=Independent assortment likely 17. Law of Segregation a) alternate versions of genes account for variations in inherited traits b) for each trait, an organism inherits 2 alleles c) if the alleles differ, the dominant allele will determine the phenotype for that trait d) the 2 alleles for each trait segregate during gamete formation (meiosis) 18. Law of Independent Assortment- the inheritance pattern of one trait will not affect the inheritance pattern of the other 19. Inheritance- each character studied by Mendel is determined by one gene there were only two alleles for each gene - one allele is completely dominant over the other - a single gene can produce many phenotypes - there can be more than two alleles - some alleles are not completely dominant or recessive 20. Co-dominance - the two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways 21. Incomplete dominance- Neither color completely dominates the other
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bio exam III study guide - Exam III Study Guide Mendelian...

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