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bio 108 exam IV study guide

# bio 108 exam IV study guide - EXAM IV STUDY GUIDE...

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EXAM IV STUDY GUIDE Population Ecology 1. population- a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time 2. a population’s boundaries may be natural or defined by a researcher 3. Population size - total number of individuals in the population -measure it directly (census) -estimate it in small areas and extrapolate to the species’ entire range...(density) X (area or volume occupied) -estimate it using mark-recapture analysis: 1) Capture some and mark all captured, then release 2) Assume marked individuals mixed with unmarked 3) Come back and recapture 4) If population is small, the proportion of recaptures that are marked is high 4. Population density - number of individuals per unit of area or volume 5. Population dispersion - pattern of spacing among individuals -Clumped distribution= individuals are in groups or patches, reflects patchiness in resources (food, water),aggregation behavior, -Uniform distribution= spacing among individuals is roughly constant, reflects competition among individuals, e.g. territoriality -Random distribution= the space between nearest neighbors varies randomly, reflects homogeneity of resources and weak interactions 6. Sex ratio - ratio of males to females (or F to M) 7. Age structure - how many individuals in each age class 8. Schedules of survival and reproduction - how often do they 9. reproduce? How many young? How long do they live? 10. Lifespan varies among organisms 11. Probability of dying per unit time: mortality rate 12. Probability of surviving per unit time: survival rate 13. “Survivorship” is represented in plots -X axis is age and is in linear units -Y axis is always in logarithmic units (exponents of 10) -Y axis range: nearly 0 to 1 (proportion) or 1 to 1000 (number) 14. three basic type of survivorship curves: 1) mortality rate increases later in life 2) mortality rate is constant over life 3) mortality rate is highest in young 15. Schedule includes the age at first reproduction, a breeding frequency, a litter size *Iteroparity: repeated reproduction *semelparity: breed once or briefly upon maturity, then die….“big bang breeding” 16. population dynamics= The way that populations grow and the factors that affect their growth are subjects of great importance with regards to our management and conservation of natural resources.Population models are developed to help us predict future abundance. 17. Population growth is dependent on birth rate and mortality rate -Reproduction and survival schedules describe timing of birth and death events over lifetime -there will be a # of births (B) and there will be a # of deaths (D)

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- Population growth in the time period is the difference between these two (B and D) -The change in the population size (DN) over a particular time period (Dt) is equal to the number of births minus the number of deaths -if there are more deaths than births, the change in population size will be negative (the population will lose individuals) -if there are more births than deaths, the change in population size will be positive (the
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