exam I study guide

exam I study guide - Lecture Outline 1 Pages: 92-123 I....

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Lecture Outline 1 Pages: 92-123 I. Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote (cellular architectural plans) *all cells have: plasma membrane- contains cytosol, a semifluid substance in which organelles are found; a barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, chromosomes- carries genes in the form of DNA ribosomes- tiny organelles that make proteins according to instructions from the genes a. Distinguish between the two cell types 1. cell size 2. membrane bound structures or not *E= chromosomes are found in the nucleus- membrane-enclosed organelle *P= DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid- no membrane separating rest of cell 3. ability to organize into more complex substances: example-tissue II. Cell structure and Function a. Cell: membranes consist of a double layer of phospholipids (proteins) *head=hydrophilic, tail=hydrophobic b. Cytoskeleton-support, motility and regulation 1. Examples: (microtubules: cilia, flagella & motor proteins, microfilaments: actin, intermediate filaments) c. Cell : organellel- subcellular structures: important examples : mitochondria, ribosome, chloroplast, nucleus, endomembrane system, lysosomes d. Cell function: examples- protein synthesis and cellular respiration e. Extracellular matrix (ECM): extensions of cell beyond the membrane 1. examples: tight junctions, gap junctions -kidneys filter and reabsorb liters of water every day; if they don’t reabsorb, we die of dehydration -aquaporins allow us to reabsorb enough water, w/o reabsorbing ions; looks like an hourglass spanning the membrane; 2 halves are symmetrical w/ opposite orientations; driving force is osmosis -all organisms are made of cells; cells sense & respond to environmental fluctuations -phagocytosis= to eat by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles -autophagy= use of lysosomes’ hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell’s own organic material Pages: 1-29
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I. Reductionism and the sum of its parts *reductionism- reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study a. systems: goal- to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems b. emergent properties- novel properties that aren’t present at the level just c. Hypotheses- a tentative answer to a well-framed question Theories- broad enough to spin off many new specific hypotheses that can be tested; -producers= plants & other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy -consumers= organisms that feed on producers & other consumers -exchange of energy b/w an organisms & its surroundings often involves the transformation of one form of energy to another -DNA= the substance of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit info from parents to offspring -genome= the entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
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exam I study guide - Lecture Outline 1 Pages: 92-123 I....

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