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exam III study guide

exam III study guide - Lecture 1 Anatomy study of the...

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Lecture 1 Anatomy study of the structure of an organism Physiology the study of the function the structure performs *both directed by natural selection Atoms molecules cells tissues organs organ systems I. Tissues- groups of cells w/ a common structure & function A. Types: 1. epithelial- tightly packed cells; covers outside of body & lines organs & cavities - functions as a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes, fluid loss *types: columnar (bricks), pseudostratified, cuboidal (dice), columnar ciliated, squamous (floor tiles) 2. connective- binds and supports other cells - have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix a) loose arrangement of cells in a matrix binding/packing material b) adipose tissue- fat storage c) fibrous connective tissue- tendons/ligaments d) cartilage- collagenous fibers in matrix; nonelastic & don’t tear easily e) bone- mineralized connective tissue f) blood- plasma, red/white blood cells & platelets g) elastic- long threads made of protein (elastin) h) reticular- very thin & branched; composed of collagen & continuous w/ collagenous fibers; form a tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues 3. nervous- senses stimuli & transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another - functional unit=neuron transmits nerve impulses - central nervous system: brain, spinal cord - peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves and spinal nerves 4. muscle- myofibrils made of contractile proteins actin & myosin - contract when stimulated by nerve signals - work in antagonistic pairs to flex & extend against the skeleton *types: = Cardiac- found only in the heart, striated, intercalated discs where gap junctions provide direct electrical coupling among cells, causing all the muscles of the heart to contract. Cardiac muscles can generate action potentials on their own. = Skeletal – do not contract unless triggered to do so by input from a controlling motor neuron. = Smooth – no striations because the actin and myosin filaments are not all regularly arrayed along the length of the cell, contain less myosin than
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striated muscle, no T tubule system or well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. II. Organ (organized tissues)/Organ Systems 1. digestive 2. respiratory 3. circulatory 4. excretory III. Bioenergetics- the flow of energy through an animal 1. metabolic rate- rate of energy consumption (kcal/time) - inversely related to body size - measured by monitoring an animal’s rate of heat loss 2. endotherms- animals that generate their own heat (BMR at rest, empty stomach) - can survive in extreme cold or heat, can sustain activity for longer period of time - need a lot of food 3. ectotherms- animals that get most of heat from environment (SMR resting, fasting, nonstressed at a particular temp) - need less energy to maintain body temperature - can be very active for only short periods of time.
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