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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Clovis Points: Old arrowheads originally found in Clovis, New Mexico, in a layer of soil below that of the previously discovered Folsom Points, proving that there were people in America prior to 10,000 years ago. Further discoveries indicate that people were hunting in America 14,000 years ago. Provides evidence that Native Americans had centuries of civilization in America prior to the arrival of the Europeans. Archaic period lasted for 7000 years largest species disappeared: mammoths, mastodons, horses, camels, bison humans developed new methods of survival: drive herds over cliffs, use remains for food, clothing, tools atlatl- a weighted spear-throwing device that let hunters bring down medium-sized game groups shared a lack of domesticated animals except dogs and llama South America: people learned to cultivate root crops of potatoes & manioc (cassava) Mesoamerica- squash, beans, maize became a crucial ingredient for the growth of complex societies Native Americans General Division of labor: women raise and prepare the food and men hunt and wage war Belief in animism supernatural is a complex web of power woven into every part of the natural world Not static, civilizations rise and fall Dispersion and disunity ( no single state) Cahokia The largest of the Mississippian mound building centers a large strong regional chiefdom after 1050, controlling towns on both sides of the Mississippi river elites were losing their power by 1400: The rise and fall of the civilization of Cahokia demonstrates that Native American culture was not static prior to the arrival of the Europeans, as some historians have suggested. Vinland Small Settlement by the Norse Vikings (Leif the Viking) on the North American coast around 1000 A.D. which existed for several years. 160 people until natives drove them away Demonstrates that Christopher Columbus was not the first European to reach America. Changes in Europe Pursuit of wealth, asian spices (nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, cloves), oeacnic exploration Religious fervor crusading zeal Printing press New maritime technology- Portugal became maritime leader o Henry the Navigator crossed the Straits of Gibraltar to fight Muslims at Ceuta in North Africa o Elimina Castle- trading fort on the Gold Coast guard against Spanish competition and support exploration toward the east o Bartolomeu Dias- rounded the Cape of Good Hope, proving that a link existed b/w the Atlantic and Indian oceans o Vasco da Gama- opened a southeastern sea route to the East Christopher Columbus 1451-1506 Born in Genoa (Italy) Son of a weaver Experienced navigator discovered America in 1492 but thought he had reached the Indies Results of Initial Contact Transatlantic slave trade initiated by Christopher Columbus Brutal treatment of Native Americans by European invaders Destruction of the Native American population and culture, through ill-treatment and...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HISTORY 131 taught by Professor Catherinepage during the Spring '08 term at UConn.
- Spring '08