Intro_to_Archaeology_Exam_II

Intro_to_Archaeology_Exam_II - Intro to Archaeology Exam II...

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Intro to Archaeology Exam II Ecofacts- unmodified natural items fo8und in contexts (plant or animal material) Flora- archaeological plant remains Fauna- archaeological remains of animals Features- permanent facilities and structures constructed Assemblage- related set of different things, occur at different scales in different contexts Component single layer; multi component different time periods Activity Areas- locations of specific tasks or behaviors focused on a single or limited purpose at a site Example: Tomb of Qin Shihuang Primary Context - (in situ) systemic context preserved; contemporary; e.g. house floor or kill site Secondary Context - systemic context destroyed; may or may not be contemporary; e.g. river gravels Systemic Context - the actual use of artifacts and features in the past or present Kill Site - specialized hunting and butchering tools; not many tools; many flakes; few features; not permanent; low species diversity Habitation Site - many tools for many functions; many and diverse features and structures; permanent; high species diversity plants Social Organization Bands - small-scale societies of hunter gatherers; egalitarian (equality); shamans : specialists in ritual healing, seers of the future; e.g. Aborigines Tribes - small-scale societies of sedentary farmers; egalitarian; up to a few thousand; democratic; clan tribal council; villages Chiefdoms - large, kinship based political unit of several communities; status is assigned by heredity (social rank); 5,000-20,000+; redistribution; ritual centers; religious leaders; Hohokam
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State of Organized Societies - large-scale, autonomous, and territorial political unit and class society having a centralized government capable of drafting laws; class based on hierarchy; Mesoamerica Evidence (1) burial data : offerings, location; (2) site structure : structure differences, layout, size of site, special structures; (3) community projects : canals, structures;
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ARCH 202 taught by Professor Waters during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Intro_to_Archaeology_Exam_II - Intro to Archaeology Exam II...

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