Gender Final 2009Study GuideSports: Title IX-Men and women have historically been treated differently in academia.-Sports employees, requirements, etc-Sex discrimination: tons of evidenceTitle IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to the civil Rights Act of 1964:“no person in the US, shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal assistance.”-males&females are expected to fair treatment in many areas: recruitment, admissions, financial aid, sexual harassment, marital and parental status, course offerings and access, and athletics.Title IX (specifically athletics): our culture focuses on the athletics of title 9.3 major requirements of title 9:1) asked to be in compliance of 1 out of 3 of the following:1. substantial proportionality: participation opportunities for men and women are “substantially proportionate” to their respective undergraduate enrollments2. history and continuing practice: the institution has a history and continuing practice of program expansion, that is responsive to developing interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex3. Effectively accommodating interests and abilities: the institution is meeting the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex. Doesn’t need to offer identical sports, but does need to provide equal opportunity for females to play in sports of interest---some people say all of these are so vague that schools could easily weasel their way around them2) Scholarships: the total amount of athletic aid must be substantially proportionate to the ratio of male&female athletes. 3) Equal treatment in the provision of: (basically all aspects of sports/teams)←*quality, not quantityBenefitssince: 3,000--->3,000,000 women athletes. more parents believe that sports are equally beneficial for boys and girls. -CU incident in 2001: huge controversy. now CU must have a title 9 advisor to supervise the hostile “ environment” that cause the rape. Similar advisor programs across US. Language: linguistic sexism1) male is normative: “you guys, mankind, man made, freshman” etc. All use male descriptors to describe men and women2) Titles: Mrs. married women. Ms. single. Mr. married or single (women’s titles are based on the relationships to men while men’s are always stagnant)
3) Job Titles: fireman, police man, salesman, mailman, congressman, spokesman, “men at work”, etc. through this society is saying these jobs are only for men. (we should be using other alternatives: fire fighter, police officer, sales person, male carrier, etc)4) Word order in Pairs: husband and wife, boys and girls, brothers and sister, kind and queen, he and she, his and her. 5) Infantilization and name-calling: girlsgirls, chicks. Boysgirl, bitch, pussy.