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cinema as an art form study guide

cinema as an art form study guide - Chapter oneMechanics of...

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Chapter one- Mechanics of the Movies 1. Filmmaking = technology + businesses 2. Cinematic motion = critical flicker fusion + apparent motion 3. The standard shooting rate for sound film is 24 still frames per second, while some early silent films were shot at a lower rate (16 or 20). 4. Film strip: negative -> printer -> positive 5. Motion picture film consists of a transparent acetate base (the shiny side), which supports an emulsion (layers of gelatin containing light-sensitive materials); sprockets (small teeth in the machine) can hold the perforations (sprocket holes) and pull the film at a uniform rate and smoothness; film strip reserves space for a sound track 6. Width of the film strip = gauge: 35mm (commercial theaters), Super 8mm, 16mm and 70mm; bigger the better: 16mm<35mm<70mm 7. Sound track either magnetic or optical (mostly optical); optical sound track on right side of 16mm while on left of 35mm and the sound is encoded variable-area in each; monophonic or stereophonic Making the Movie (14) 1. 3 phases: production, distribution & exhibition 2. production scriptwriting and funding o producer: executive producer, line producer, associate producer o screenwriter: treatment -> full-length scripts -> shooting script o above-the-line costs + below-the-line costs = negative cost preproduction: o set unit (production design unit), production designer, art director, set decorator, set dresser, costume designer, o storyboard (one form of animatics) o previsualization (previz) shooting (production, principle photography) o script supervisor (script girl): continuity from shot to shot o first assistant director (AD) o second assistant director o third assistant director o dialogue coach
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o second unit director o cast: stars, supporting players, minor players, extras o stunt artists & stunt coordinator, choreographer, wrangler o photography unit: cinematographer (director of photography, DP) camera operator key grip gaffer o sound unit: production recordist (sound mixer) boom operator third man sound designer o visual-effects unit: visual-effects supervisor o makeup staff, costume staff, hairdressers, drivers o producer’s crew: line producer, production accountant (production auditor), production secretary, production assistant (PA) o slate o master shot & coverage assembly: cutting picture and sound, executing special effects, inserting music or extra dialogue and adding titles (postproduction) o editor (supervising editor): dailies or the rushes; assistant editor o rough cut -> fine cut (final cut); outtakes o second unit: inserts o nonlinear systems o sound editor: spotting; automated dialogue replacement (ADR); guide track -> dubbing or looping o composer: rough cut + temp dub; click track o rerecording mixer o camera negative: interpositive & internegative; digital intermediate; answer print & release prints Modes of Production (25) 1. large-scale production: studio filmmaking 2. exploitation and independent production 3. small-scale production: one person does many things; collective production 4. we can distinguish documentary, fiction on the bais of production phases; compilation film
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cinema as an art form study guide - Chapter oneMechanics of...

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