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4-10 - Gender Stratification Overview Exam II Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Gender Stratification Overview Exam II Social Construction of Gender Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Stratification Patterns of Gender Stratification Exam II Class Average: 78% Range: 96% 46% A = 11% B = 39% C = 34% D = 12% F = 4% Where Do You Stand? Your current grade is calculated as: (Exam I + Exam II + Bonus Points) / 200 A = 100 89.5 B = 89.4 79.5 C = 79.4 69.5 D = 69.4 59.5 F = 59.4 0 Social Construction of Gender Gender is an ascribed status Often a master status Gender roles: Behaviors that flow from one's gender status, guided by gender norms Evident in how we interact with others, how we perceive ourselves, the tasks we undertake, etc. Social Construction of Gender Gender Socialization Learn the symbolic meaning of gender through the process of socialization Agents of socialization teach us what it is to be masculine and feminine Family, school, peers, media... Social Construction of Gender Gender Norms in the United States Norm Violations by Women Norm Violations by Men Going topless Wear a dress Spit in public Cry in public Use men's bathroom Use women's bathroom Chew tobacco Wear makeup Work on cars Babysit Social Construction of Gender Gender Roles Across Cultures Culture and socialization are central to how the social roles of males and females are defined; what gender means Incredible crosscultural variation Definition has profound influence on people's social realities and life chances Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Stratification The Functionalist Perspective Genderrole differentiation contributes to social stability Clarifies role expectations Ex) Helps define division of labor in the economy and the household Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Stratification The relationship between men and women is characterized by unequal power relations The Conflict Perspective Men hold greater power in most societies compared to women Gender differences are a result of this power differential Patterns of Gender Stratification Sexism and Sex Discrimination Sexism is the ideology that one sex is superior to the other Typically refers to ideologies of male superiority Sex Discrimination refers to unequal treatment on the basis of sex Patterns of Gender Stratification Women in the American Workforce Female labor force participation has increased steadily throughout the twentieth century Yet, the opportunity structure of women differs from men in important ways Different normative expectations, institutional discrimination, and occupational segregation Patterns of Gender Stratification The "Second Shift": Balancing demands of work outside the home with work inside the home Studies show there continues to be a clear gender gap in the performance of housework, although the differences are narrowing Tension of work/family demands can be incredibly trying; role strain and conflict Affirmative Action Affirmative Action: Policies aimed at recruiting members of underrepresented groups (racial/ ethnic minorities, women) into workplaces, educational institutions, etc. Designed as collective remedy for past and current discrimination LBJ's foot race example Political "hotbutton" Facts on Affirmative Action Quotas are illegal (besides court ordered) Women have been equal beneficiaries of AA Supreme Court recently upheld "diversity" as a legal justification for AA AA is a type of group preference; debate about whether it's a just preference and what constitutes a qualification ...
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