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ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT MANVIR PANNUWALDEN UNIVERSITY NURS: ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGYCYNTHIA UCHESEPTEMBER 09/21/2020
ASTHMA Asthma, the most common chronic respiratory disease affecting people from childhood to adulthood (Fuchs et al., 2017). During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes swell, causing the airways to narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Risk factors for developing asthma are inhaled substances and particles that may provoke allergic reactions or irritate the airways(WHO, n.d.) Asthma is underdiagnosed and undertreatment(WHO, n.d.).Asthma is one of the major noncommunicable diseases(WHO, n.d.) According to WHO estimates, there were 417,918 deaths due to asthma at the global level. Medication can control asthma. Avoiding asthma triggers can also reduce the severity of asthma(WHO, n.d.) Appropriate management of asthma can enable people to enjoy a good quality of life (WHO, n.d.)
ASTHMA LONG TERM TREATMENT CONTROL AND QUICK TREATMENT OPTIONS•Asthma Pharmacotherapies describe asthma pharmacotherapies as reliever(rescue) or controller medication (Global Initiative for Asthma, 2018). •Long-term goals of asthma management are to achieve good symptom control and to minimize future risk of exacerbations, fixed airflow limitation, and treatment side effects(Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018)•Reliever medications, which provide immediate relief of bronchospasm, open airways, and are used on an as needed basis(Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018)Reliever Medication/Quick Treatment OptionShort acting Beta2-agonist(inhaled example albuterol and oralInhaled corticosteroid/Short acting beta2 agonistInhaled Corticosteroid/long acting Beta2-agonist combinationShort acting muscarinic antagonist( example ipratropium)Short-acting theophyllineController medication/Long Term Treatment OptionsInhaled Corticosteroid(ICS) example beclomethasone, fluticasone, ciclesonide and mometasone Long Acting Beta2-agonist example formoterol(LABA), salmetrol ; as ICS/LABA combination.Leukotriene receptor antagonists (example: montekulast)Long acting muscarinic antagonist (tiotropium).Theophylline Immunomodulators Anti-IL -5
IMPACT OF LONG TERM AND QUICK TREATMENT OPTION OF ASTHMA ON PATIENT •Long term drugs are taken everyday whereas the quick relief drugs are taken for quick relief are taken PRN(Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018)•Inhaled glucocorticoids are by far the most important long-term control agent in current use. Long term use reduce the frequency and severity of attacks as well as the need for quick relief medication(Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018)•Anti-inflammatory especially inhaled glucocorticoids are the foundation of asthma and COPD therapy.