Philosophy Ethics Review Exam 2

Philosophy Ethics Review Exam 2 - Philosophy Ethics Review...

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Philosophy Ethics Review Exam 2 1. How to PEE an argument a. Presenting the Argument i. If _ is true, then it is morally permissible to _. ii. It is not the case that _ is morally permissible. iii. Therefore, it is not the case that _ is true. 1. 1,2 MT b. Explaining the Argument i. Justification for premise 1 ii. Justification for premise 2 iii. Explain technical terms i.e. Utilitarianism, Qual U, Quant U, etc. c. Evaluating the Argument i. Valid? ii. Sound? iii. Agree? Disagree? iv. Opinion 2. Criterion of Morally Permissible Action a. An act token, x, is morally permissible if and only if ___ x ___. 3. Theory of Value a. _______ are the kinds of things that can be morally good or bad and a [thing of that kind] is morally good/better (bad/worse) to the degree that _____. 4. Consequentialist Criterion of Morally permissible Action
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a. An act-token, x, is morally permissible if and only if in performing x, the agent brings about the best state of affairs among his/her alternatives. 5. States of Affairs Theory of Value a. States of affairs are the kinds of things that can be morally good or bad and a state of affairs is morally good/better (bad/worse) to the degree that _____. 6. Hedonistic Theories of Value a. Hedonist SOA theory of value i. One that holds that the goodness/badness state of affairs is solely a matter of the balance of pleasure and pain involved in the state of affairs. 7. Utilitarian Criteria of Moral permissibility a. Any moral theory that endorses both a consequentialist criterion of morally permissible action and a hedonist theory of value. 8. Benthamian Hedonic Values of pleasures, pains, and state of affairs a. BHV of a pleasure = pleasure’s intensity and duration b. BHVof a pain = -(the product of that pain’s intensity and duration c. BHV of a state of affairs = the sum of the BHV’s of all the pains and pleasures in that state of affairs. d. Units for BHVs are jolly-hours 9. Bentham’s Theory of Value a. Quantitative Hedonism
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i. States of affairs are the kinds of things that can be morally good or bad and a state of affairs is good (bad) if it has a positive (negative) BHV, and one state of affairs is better (worse) than another to the degree that the one has a higher (lower) BHV than the other. 10. Bentham’s Criterion of Morally Permissible Action a. Quantitative Utilitarianism i. An act-token, x, is morally permissible if and only if in performing x, the agent brings about the state of affairs, amongst the alternative stats of affairs he can bring about, with the highest BHV. 11. Millian Hedonic Values of pleasures, pains, and states of affairs a. MHV of a pleasure = the product of that pleasure’s intensity , duration , and quality b. MHV of a pain = -(the product of that pain’s intensity , duration , and quality ) c. MHV of a state of affairs = sum of the MHVs of all the pains and pleasures in that state of affairs 12. Mill’s Theory of Value and Mill’s Criterion of Morally Permissible Action a. Qualitative Hedonism
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PHIL 160 taught by Professor Pete during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Philosophy Ethics Review Exam 2 - Philosophy Ethics Review...

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