Human Brain and Race Notes

O evidence of butchering in stone mark on bones and

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Unformatted text preview: is energy hungry – human brain consumes 25% of our energy when resting o Brain tissue expends 9x body tissue average o In infants, 75% of body’s energy o Need for energy ­rich food Human Diet o Richard Wrangham argued that human could not eat enough food on ‘chimp diet’ to survive (besides he found the fruit ‘very unpleasant’) o H. ergaster brain size increasing while teeth are growing smaller. Would need more than 5 kilos/day in raw plant food – cooking! Cost of Bigger Brain o Examining energy demanding organs o Human gut, especially, is significantly smaller than predicted by patterns in other species o Makes digestive tract less efficient ‘Man the Hunter’ Hypothesis o Did hunting drive human evolution by fueling hungry brain? o Evidence of butchering in stone mark on bones and refuse piles o Modern foragers get 50% of calories from meat (chimps <3%) o Might seek especially rich foods (like brains or marrow) – scavenger o Would also help explain expanding ranges of H. ergaster (out of Africa) o But data and jaw bones suggest small animal hunting (not romantic image of big game hunting) Something Fishy about the Brain? • • • • • o Shoreline foraging provided high protein frogs, clams, fish, & bird eggs (fish bones with H. habilis) o Shore rather than savannah as the crucial niche o Evidence: iodine deficiency o Possible, but still theoretical… Climate Change Hypothesis o...
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