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AP US HISTORYColonial History (1600-1763)1. Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans– Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth2. Northwest Passage– believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth3. Conversion Experience– required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church4. Social Reciprocity– society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly5. Church of England– Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty6. Atlantic slave trade– often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange7. Jamestown– first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River8. John Smith– introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks9. Pocahontas– key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 161710. Mayflower Compact– foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land11. John Winthrop– Calvinist, devised concept of “city on a hill” (“A Model of Christian Charity”); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay12. “City on a Hill”– exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs13. Indentured servants– settlers to pay the expenses of a servant’s voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system14. Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)– mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
15. James I, Charles I– reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors16. William Penn and the Quakers– settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers17. Roger Williams– challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church18. Anne Hutchinson– challenged New England Calvinist ministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism19. The Half-Way Covenant– New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints20. Bacon’s Rebellion– rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native AmericansIndependence (1763-1789)21. Navigation Acts– only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 176322. Mercantilism– ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial