chapter_14 - American History A Survey By Alan Brinkley...

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American History – A Survey By Alan Brinkley Chapter 14 The Civil War o The Secession Crisis square4 The Withdrawal of the South South Carolina seceded first o Voted unanimously on December 20, 1860 to withdraw the state from the Union Many others followed o Mississippi square4 January 9, 1861 o Florida square4 January 10, 1861 o Alabama square4 January 11, 1861 o Georgia square4 January 19, 1861 o Louisiana square4 January 26, 1861 o Texas square4 February 1, 1861 They formed themselves into the Confederate States of America President James Buchanan told Congress that no state had the right to secede from the Union, but that the federal government could not stop them if they did The South did not have enough military power to seize Fort Sumter in South Carolina or Fort Pickens in Florida square4 The Failure of Compromise In Washington forces came together to form a compromise early on Compromise forces gathered behind a proposal first submitted by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky o Known as the Crittenden Compromise square4 Called for constitutional amendments, which would guarantee the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states and would satisfy Southern demands on such issues as fugitive laves and slavery in D.C. square4 A proposal to reestablish the Missouri Compromise line in all present and future territory of the United States This went against the Republican ideal – slavery not expand Compromise efforts failed square4 Fort Sumter Conditions at Fort Sumter were deteriorating o Lincoln believed that if he surrendered Sumter, his commitment to maintaining the Union would no longer be credible Lincoln sent supplies to the fort, telling South Carolina that no shots would be fired unless the supplies met resistance o The new Confederate government saw that permitting the expedition to land would seem to be a tame submission to federal authority South ordered General P. G. T. Beauregard to take the island by force if necessary When Major Robert Anderson, leader of a small force at Sumter, refused to surrender, the South bombed the fort for two days o April 12 – 13, 1861 o On the 14 th , Anderson surrendered square4 The Civil War had begun Four more slave states seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy o Virginia square4 April 17, 1861
o Arkansas square4 May 6, 1861 o Tennessee square4 June 8, 1861 o North Carolina square4 May 20, 1861 Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri all chose to go with the Union People in both the North and South believed that two distinct and incompatible civilizations had developed in the United States and that those civilizations were incapable of living together in peace square4 The Opposing Sides At the war’s beginning all the important material advantages lay with the North o Greater population in the North o An advanced industrial system square4 By 1862, the North was able to manufacture almost all its own war materials o The North had a better transportation system than the South

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