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Lecture notes Nov 14 CHEM135 Dr. Johnson

Lecture notes Nov 14 CHEM135 Dr. Johnson - Lecture Notes...

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Lecture Notes CHEM135 November 14, 2007 Dr. Johnson Chemical Equilibrium Reached when the rates of the forward reaction and reverse reaction are equal and the concentration of reactants and products no longer with time. Physical Equilibrium equilibrium between two phases of the same substance the vaporization of water in a closed container at a given temperature H 2 O (l) H 2 O (g) The double arrow means that the process is reversible Phase diagrams – equilibrium between phases along lines (phase boundaries) Chemical Equilbirium: Reversible reaction N 2 O 4 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) Monitored easily because N 2 O 4 is a colorless gas and NO 2 is a brown gas. Known amount of N 2 O 4 injected into a flask under vacuum. The appearance of the brown NO 2 gas would be visible; the color intensifies until equilibrium is reached. Can also be reached by introducing NO 2 only or a mixture of the two. The same equilibrium will be reached. The same proportion of molecules. All three will reach the same equilibrium point if at the same temperature. This equilibrium point can be represented by a constant, K c or K P , called equilibrium constants: ] [ ] [ 4 2 2
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