Evolution Post-Lab Assignment Online (1).xlsx - BIO 1414...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1414 - Evolution Name: Lab Section: Date: 6/7/2020 Group Members: Complete all questions, tables, and graphs on the four tabs following this Tit Answers to questions must be written in complete sentences. Upload to Blackboard by 11:59 P.M. by the due date. ollowing this Title page. sentences. ue date. Random Mating and Hardy-Weinberg Principle Table 1 - Genotypic and Allelic Frequencies for Random Mating Parental Number of Genotypic Number of Alleles Genotype Individuals Frequency Alleles 25 0.25 B 100 BB 50 0.5 b 100 Bb 25 0.25 Total 200 bb 100 1.0 Total Offspring Genotype BB Bb bb Total Question 1: Number of Individuals 22 55 23 100 Genotypic Frequency 0.22 0.55 0.23 1.0 Alleles B b Total Number of Alleles 100 100 200 Do the allelic frequencies of the offspring match the parents? Explain your data. Yes, the allelic frequency of the offspring matches the parents because as you can s the data they contain the same allelic frequency Question 2: If the frequencies are significantly different, then one of the assumptions of the Hardy-Wein Principle was probably violated. Explain which one was violated in your answer. If n were violated, explain why this is the case. The assumption that individuals do not migrate into or out of the population principle probably violated Question 3: Take a picture of your setup for this procedure. Your picture should include the container th used for the “Parental Population” and the items used to represent the alleles. Insert your picture of your Procedure 1 setup in the designated area below. g Principle ndom Mating Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 1 Allelic Frequency 0.5 0.5 ents? Explain your data. nts because as you can see in frequency umptions of the Hardy-Weinberg olated in your answer. If none e case. of the population principle was uld include the container that you to represent the alleles. designated area below. 100% Negative Selection Pressure Table 2 - Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection Number of Individuals Parental Genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total Calculate the allelic frequencies for B and b in the fifth generation. Show your calculations B= 21+21+52=94/(100X2)=0.47 Question 2: 25 50 25 100 24 51 25 100 21 57 22 100 24 51 25 100 25 49 26 100 21 52 27 100 b= 52+27+27=106/(100X2)=0.53 Did the frequency of the bb individuals decrease with successive generations? Explain why or wh The frequency of the bb went up and down with sucessive generations. This is because of the selection Question 3: Was the decrease in the frequency of bb individuals between successive generations always the s Explain why or why not. The decrease in the frequencies of bb individuals between successive generations was not a the same, because of the natural selection and the changing parental populations. Question 4: Is it possible to completely eliminate the red allele? Based on your data, approximately how many generations would it take? Yes you can, however it would require a BB allelic frequency as the parental population for generations. Yes you can, however it would require a BB allelic frequency as the parental population for generations. Question 5: Most naturally occurring selective pressures do not eliminate reproduction by the affected individu Instead, their reproductive capacity is reduced by a small proportion. How would your results differ was only 20% negative selection pressure rather than 100%? The reproductive success wouldn't decrease at the same rate. If it were at 20%, it would dec faster Create a line graph of your data from Table 2 for the Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations i independent variable on the x-axis and Genotypic Frequency is the dependent variable on the y Question 6: Graph three lines, one for each genotype (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the three gen You will need to include a legend that includes all three genotypes. Be sure to title your graph, lab axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 2. You will want to cre table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down belo Genotypic frequency Parental genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 BB 25 24 21 24 25 21 Bb 50 51 57 51 49 52 Genotypic Frequencies for 100% Negative Selection Genotype Frequences 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Parental genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Genotype Frequences 50 40 30 20 10 0 Parental genotype Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation BB Bb bb Generation 4 Generation 5 on Pressure % Negative Selection Genotypic Frequency 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.0 0.24 0.51 0.25 1.0 0.21 0.57 0.22 1.0 0.24 0.51 0.25 1.0 0.25 0.49 0.26 1.0 0.21 0.52 0.27 1.0 fifth generation. Show your calculations. b= 52+27+27=106/(100X2)=0.53 ccessive generations? Explain why or why not. sive generations. This is because of the natural n ween successive generations always the same? why not. ween successive generations was not always nd the changing parental populations. sed on your data, approximately how many more d it take? equency as the parental population for many ns. minate reproduction by the affected individuals. proportion. How would your results differ if there ressure rather than 100%? same rate. If it were at 20%, it would decrease Excel Post-Lab Assignment. Generations is the quency is the dependent variable on the y-axis. mbols or colors to distinguish the three genotypes). enotypes. Be sure to title your graph, label your a legend. ata from Table 2. You will want to create a h from that and include it down below. bb 25 25 22 25 26 27 % Negative Selection Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 3 on bb Generation 4 Generation 5 Gene Flow Table 3 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Gene Flow Population 1 Population 1 Population 2 Number of Frequency of Number of Alleles B allele Alleles Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Question 1: B 90 b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total B b Total 10 100 86 14 100 83 17 100 80 20 100 76 24 100 49 0.9 0.86 0.83 0.8 0.76 51 100 54 46 100 57 43 100 61 36 100 65 35 100 Would changing the number of immigrants per generation (e.g. migrating 5 or 20 individuals each changes in frequencies? Explain your reasoning. Yes it would because it can even out the gene pool Question 2: How does the differences in starting allelic frequencies between the two populations affect th frequencies? Explain your reasoning. It affects the changes in frequences over time by one being stabalized while the other w unbalanced Create a line graph of the Frequency of B allele against the successive Generations for b populations from Table 3. Graph two lines, one for each population (use different symbols or colo Question 3: the two populations). You will need to include a legend that includes both populations. Be sure graph, label your axes, and include a legend. Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 3. You will want to c first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down be Generation Population 1 Generation 1 0.9 Generation 2 0.86 Generation 3 0.83 Generation 4 0.8 Generation 5 0.76 Population 2 0.49 0.54 0.57 0.61 0.65 Frequency of B allele Gene Flow 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation Population 1 Population 2 Generation 5 ne Flow Population 2 Frequency of B allele 0.49 0.54 0.57 0.61 0.65 5 or 20 individuals each time) affect the asoning. gene pool wo populations affect the changes in ng. alized while the other will become ssive Generations for both of your different symbols or colors to distinguish oth populations. Be sure to title your egend. 3. You will want to create a table nd include it down below. eneration 4 2 Generation 5 Genetic Drift Table 4 - Allelic Frequencies resulting from Genetic Drift Number of Frequency of Frequency of b Genotype B allele allele Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 6 Generation 7 Generation 8 Question 1: Question 2: BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total BB Bb bb Total 25 50 25 100 0 3 1 4 1 2 1 4 2 2 0 4 2 1 1 4 2 2 0 4 0 2 2 4 2 2 0 4 0.5 0.5 0.375 0.625 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.625 0.375 0.75 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.25 Is it possible to predict the frequencies of subsequent generations? Explain your reasoning. Yes, it is possible to predict the allelic frequency of subsequent generation. This is becaus according to the principle of hardy weinberg equilibrium, the alleleic frequency remains cons from generation to generation. Would the effects of genetic drift differ with the sample size? Explain your reasoning. Yes the effects of genetic drift may differ with the sample size because genetic drift can ha major effects when a population is sharply reduced in size by a natural disaster Question 3: Why is this mechanism for evolution called genetic drift? It is called genetic drift because the alleles are disappearing simply due to chance It is called genetic drift because the alleles are disappearing simply due to chance Question 4: Could genetic drift eventually lead to speciation? Explain why or why not. Yes, it can lead to speciation because it can cause a population to become genetically disti from its original population and result in forming a new species Question 5: If one of the alleles for your experiment was lost (0%) and the other became fixed (100%), how cou lost allele be brought back into the population? Explain your reasoning. The ost allele could be brought back through immigration with the newcomers carrying the allele and spreadingonce again to the population Create a line graph of the Allelic Frequency for each Generation from Table 4. Graph two lines, o each allele (use different symbols or colors to distinguish the two alleles). You will need to include legend that includes both alleles. Be sure to title your graph, label your axes, and include a leg Use the area below to insert your graph of the data from Table 4. You will want to cre table first of the data, then create a line graph from that and include it down below GenerationAllelic Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Generation 6 Generation 7 Generation 8 Frequency Allelic B Frequency b 0.5 0.5 0.375 0.625 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.625 0.375 0.75 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.25 Genetic Drif Allelic Frquency Question 6: ne Ge 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 on ti ra G on ati r e en 2 G on ati r e en 3 G on ati r e en 4 G on ati r e en 5 G on ati r e en 6 G on ati r e en Generation Allelic Frequency B Allelic Frequency b 7 G on ati r e en 8 Explain your reasoning. generation. This is because c frequency remains constant xplain your reasoning. cause genetic drift can have by a natural disaster tic drift? simply due to chance simply due to chance n why or why not. become genetically distinct new species ame fixed (100%), how could the your reasoning. newcomers carrying the lost lation Table 4. Graph two lines, one for es). You will need to include a ur axes, and include a legend. 4. You will want to create a nd include it down below. 6 G on ati r e en ency b 7 G on ati r e en 8 ...
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