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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Perception of Self and Others (some material adapted from Rothwell (2005) by Terri Wray, Ph.D.) Slide 2 The Perceptual Process Perception: 1) Selecting 2) Organizing 3) Interpreting . . . data from our senses. Slide 3 Perceptual Process
1) Selecting Sensory Limitations: subjective selective Selective Attention: Focus screen Slide 4 The Perceptual Process
2) Organizing: we organize selected stimuli to create meaning Prototypes Stereotypes Scripts Slide 5 Schemas (not in Rothwell) are "internal representation[s] of the world; an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world. NOT http://www.schematamusic.com Slide 6 Prototypes the "'most representative' example of something"
Best instructor Best date Best type of music "a generalization Stereotypes Slide 7 about a group or category of people" Italians Hearing impaired Men or Women a generalization about a group or category of people" Italians Hearing impaired Slide 8 Scripts " . . . a predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation." Slide 9 3) Interpreting: "we try to make sense of the stimuli that we've organized." Attribution: assigning causes to people's behavior Selfserving bias: success/self, failure/outside of self Fundamental attribution error: exaggerate personal characteristics, diminish situational causes Slide 10 The Perceptual Process SelfConcept total of selfreferential term "me" a social construction, a product of interpersonal communication relatively stable Slide 11 Selfesteem is the evaluative element of selfperception Feedback from significant people in our lives strongly influences our self esteem Slide 12 Perceptions of Self
Perceptual Set We perceive what we expect to perceive Slide 13 SelfDisclosure purposely revealing our personal info that others would not otherwise know Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Perceptions of Self Guidelines for appropriate selfdisclosure:
Trust Reciprocity Cultural Appropriateness Situational Appropriateness Incremental Disclosure Slide 18 Perception of Others Impression formation If positive encourages further transactions Slide 19 If negative prevents further contact primacy effect: tendency to perceive information presented first as more important negativity bias: strong tendency to weigh negative information more heavily than positive information. Stereotypes Slide 20 Stereotyped Distortion of Others overgeneralize: "overgeneralize by underestimating the differences among individuals in a group" Slide 21 selective memory bias "remember info that supports our stereotypes but forget info that contradicts them" Stereotypes Slide 22 can magnify differences between groups but exaggerate commonalities within a grou Slide 23 negative stereotyping: can influence perceptions of self that produce poor performance Slide 24 Gender and Perception
Gender is socially constructed Slide 25 Small Differences between men and women Slide 26 Large Differences Slide 27 Gender and Perception Reasons for Gender Differences Differences in Communication Styles Reasons for Gender Differences (con't) Slide 28 Dominance of Men Deficiency in Skill Slide 29 Gender and Perception ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GCOM 122 taught by Professor Barnes during the Fall '08 term at James Madison University.
- Fall '08