Week_3_Guide - Psychology 1 Introduction to Psychology...

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Psychology 1 – Introduction to Psychology Winter Quarter, 2008 Reading Guide for Chapters 4 and 5 pp. 98-149, 362-395 (make sure to fill in the phi effect on page 365). Week 3 This sheet is fairly comprehensive, but you should always refer back to the official fair game sheet posted online. 1. Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception a. Vision i. Retina – A layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball. 1. cones – Visual receptors adapted for color vision, daytime vision, and detailed vision. 2. rods – Visual receptors adapted for vision in dim light. ii. Lens – A flexible structure that can vary in thickness that allows the eye to accommodate (to adjust its focus for objects at different distances). 1. accommodate – The eye adjusts its focus for objects at different distances. iii. Fovea –The central area of the human retina; adapted for highly detailed vision. iv. Blind spot – The retinal area where the optic nerve exits. Has no room for receptors because the exiting axons take up all the space. v. Tri-chromatic theory 1. in your own words –We see three different types of cones, short wavelengths (blue), medium wavelengths (green), and long wavelengths (red). Every wavelength of light that we see produces a distinct ratio of the three primary colors. 2. example – You can mix the colors of light to produce different colors. Mixing yellow and blue lights produces white. vi. Opponent process theory 1. in your own words – We do not see colors in terms of independents colors, but in paired opposites, red vs. green, yellow vs. blue, and white vs. black. 2. example –After staring at something blue, you get a yellow afterimage. (after yellow, you see blue; after red, you see green, etc.) vii. Retinex theory 1. in your own words – The cerebral cortex compares the patterns of light coming from different areas of the retina and determines a color perception. 2. example – There is a white screen, illuminated completely by a green light. You do not know for sure what color the screen is without the light, but when someone with blue jeans and a brown shirt stands in front of the screen, you can tell that the screen is indeed white, and that the person is wearing brown and blue. viii. Color blindness – People have trouble distinguishing red from green and yellow. They only have two kinds of cones. b. Hearing i. Frequency/pitch – Based on different mechanisms at different frequencies. ii. Loudness/amplitude – Perception that depends on the amplitude (intensity) of sound waves. iii. Conduction deafness – the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. Can still hear your own voice, but nothing else. Can be helped by hearing aids. iv.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course DANCE 9999 taught by Professor Chapman during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Week_3_Guide - Psychology 1 Introduction to Psychology...

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