Pursuing Justice chapter 1-7 BEST

Pursuing Justice chapter 1-7 BEST - Pursuing Justice...

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Pursuing Justice Chapter 1, "Religious and Philosophical Perspectives" What was justice like under the Hammurabi Code? o Justice was like an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. o Punishments were very harsh. What was justice like under the early stages of the Old Testament? o Justice was theocratic, with God’s reactions being swift and uncompromising. What is lex talioinis? o Means an eye for an eye. What is the goal of the Quran? o To establish ethical and egalitarian society. o Economic and social inequalities were to be avoided. o To prevent people from corrupting the earth by falling into decadent ways. What are some of the main differences between Sunni and Shiite Muslims? o Shiites believe that ruling a nation should theocratic not public. o Rulers reflect the will of Allah. o Sunnis the successors to Muhammad were the four religious leaders. o Government is a secular matter; no religious authority. o Rulers come and go as the will of the people. What do Buddhists believe about human suffering? o Human suffering is natural and caused by ones own actions in this life or previous. For Buddhists, what is involved in leading a just life? o Should follow the middle path way. o Avoid extremes in life styles. o Should have correct: views, thoughts, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration. For Reinhold Neibur, principles must be addressed to achieve justice? o Freedom and Equality What do followers of liberation theology believe and in what part of the world is liberation theology most prevalent? o Latin America o Thinks capitalism in unjust o Main idea is liberating the oppressed. In early philosophy, such as Homers Illiad, how was justice defined? o Revenge o Usually reflected the nature of society at the time What is distributive justice? o Is what people deserve What is rectificatory justice?
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o Has to do with the exchange relationships: Two men before the court for the same crime are to be considered equal before the law even if they are different socially. In simple terms what is the idea behind Mill’s idea of utilitarianism? o The ends justify the means. What is the basic principle underlying John Rawls’s notion of justice? o Only principles that everyone can publicly accept can serve the purpose of giving us a fair distribution of goods and privileges and this leads to justice. o He says that everyone should be treated equal no matter what. Chapter 2, "Justice and the State " What was the divine right of kings? o The king was thought to act under the guidance of God, and as a representative of God, the monarch had considerable leeway to draw the lines of justice. In his book The Prince Machiavelli outlines his views of justice and the state. What are his views on rulers and the people who are ruled?
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