chapter5studyguide - Nutrition Chapter 5 Study Guide...

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Nutrition Chapter 5 Study Guide Chapter 5: Lipids *Atherosclerosis – a type of artery disease characterized by placques (accumulations of lipid-containing material) on the inner walls of the arteries. *Beta-Oxidation or Fatty Acid Oxidation – the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA *Bile Acid *Cholesterol – one of the sterols containing a four ring carbon structure with a carbon side chain. *Cholecystokinin (CCK) – a hormone produced by the cells of the intestinal wall. Target organ: the gallbladder. Response: release of bile and slowing of GI motility. *Chylomicrons – the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body. *Cis-Fatty Acid *Diglyceride – a molecule of glycerol with two fatty acids attached. *Double Bond *Eicosanoids – derivatives of 20-carbon fatty acids; biologically active compounds that help to regulate blood pressure, blood clotting, and other body functions. They include prostaglandins (PROS-tah- GLAND-ins), thromboxanes (throm-BOX-ains), and leukotrienes (LOO-ko-TRY-eens). *Emulsifier – a substance with both water-soluble and fat-soluble portions that promotes the mixing of the oils and fats in a watery solution *Fat replacers – ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy. *Fatty acid – an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogens attached and an acid group (COOH) at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end *Glycerol – an alcohol composed of a three-carbon chain, which can serve as the backbone for a triglyceride. *HDL (high-density lipoprotein) – the type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells; composed primarily of protein. *Hormones – chemical messengers secreted by a variety of glands in response to altered conditions in the body. *Hydrogenation – a chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more saturated (solid) and more resistant to oxidation (protecting against rancidity). *Hydrophobic – a term referring to water-fearing, or non-water-soluble, substances; also known as lipophilic (fat loving). *Hydrophilic – a term referring to water-loving, or water-soluble, substances. *Lipids – a family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. *Lipogenesis *Lipoproteins – clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood. *LDL (low-density lipoprotein) – the type of lipoprotein derived from very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol.
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Nutrition Chapter 5 Study Guide *Micelles – tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion; most contain bile salts and the products of lipid digestion, including fatty acids, monoglycerides, and cholesterol. *Monoglycerides
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course NUTRITION 100 taught by Professor Mangels during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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chapter5studyguide - Nutrition Chapter 5 Study Guide...

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