Chapter 1 - Chapter One The Ancient Near East: The First...

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-1 Chapter One The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations I. The First Humans *Hominids- earliest human like creatures, existed in Africa 3-4 million years ago -Known as Australopitecines *Homo Erectus- 1.5 million years ago, used more varied tools -Left Africa to move to Europe and Asia *Homo Sapiens- 250,000 years ago - Neanderthal- remains found in Europe and the middle east - first to bury their dead and used variety of tools * Homo Sapiens Sapiens- Africa 200,000-150,000 years ago - replaced Neanderthals 30,000 B.C and all humans today belong to the same sub-species A. The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age C *Paleolithic Age- Greek for “old stone” (c. 2,500,000-10,000 B.C) - Knew which foods to eat and which animals to hunt but could not grow food or raise animals - lived in bands of 20-30, nomadic - men and women had equal responsibilities for the food and both made decisions that affected the clan - found fire 500,000 years ago and had cave paintings that resembled culture and religion B. The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000- 4,000 B.C) *Neolithic Revolution- 10,000 B.C. end of the last Ice Age i. AN AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION -biggest change in 10,000 B.C was from hunting and gathering to producing food -planting of grains gave regular food, taming of animals gave food and clothing -developed independently 8000-7000 B.C.; different plants cultivated in each -Near East: wheat, barley, lentils -Southern Asia: rice, millet -Western Africa: millet, yams -Americas: beans, potatoes, corn ii. CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION -Catal Huyuk- one of the oldest and most extensive agricultural villages
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Chapter 1 - Chapter One The Ancient Near East: The First...

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