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Running head: INFECTIOUS DISEASE PAPER1Infectious Disease Paper: Community Acquired PneumoniaChamberlain College of NursingNR503-62695: Population Health Epidemiology and Statistical PrinciplesJuly 2020
INFECTIOUS DISEASE PAPER2Infectious Disease Paper: Community Acquired PneumoniaInfectious diseases are caused by organisms and continue to negatively impact global health. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death for infectious disease globally. The incidence of pneumonia killed 2.56 million people in 2017 and 800,000 were children under the age of 5 years old (Dandonaite & Roser, 2019). The mortality rate is astonishing considering there is a vaccine that can decrease the spread of this infectious disease. Pneumonia is acquired through transmission of pathogens including viruses, fungi, or bacteria; globally S. pneumoniaeandH. influenzae is the leading causes of bacterial pneumonia (Regunath & Oba, 2019). It is vital for healthcare providers to educate patients on CAP, including prevention, risks, and early symptoms to decrease morbidity.The pneumonia vaccine is one way to decrease mortality rates especially in young children and adults over 65 years of age. Recognizing early symptoms such as fever, productive cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest pain is key to early detection and treatment (Brown, 2015). Properly educating patients on the importance of hand hygiene and sanitizing surfaces can decrease contamination significantly. CAP can be transmitted through contact with an infected individual or airborne droplet through coughing or sneezing (WHO, 2019). The morbidity rate of CAP is more prevalent in individual with comorbidities such as lung and liver disease, HIV, heart failure, diabetes, and for individual who smoke tobacco (Alshahwan, 2019). While more children die worldwide from pneumonia, in the U. S. the elderly population is at greatest risk of death. Determinants of HealthCommunity acquired pneumonia has several contributing factors that influence the community affected. Determinants of health can be environmental, behavioral, biological,
INFECTIOUS DISEASE PAPER3socioeconomic factors that impact a populations health (WHO, 2019). Those at highest risk for mortality due to CAP are children and the elderly. Environmental determinants include air