INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC.docx - INTRODUCTION TO...

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INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC (Asynchronous Session) I. Explain your understanding of the following concepts (you may write your answer in English, Filipino or Taglish): (10 pts) i. Logic – logic is the study of how the ideas are reasonably fitted together in order to know the correct and incorrect reasoning. In other words, we must use reason and rational thinking and not emotions or beliefs in analyzing ideas and arguments to be able to apply Logic. ii. Proposition – proposition is a statement which is typically a declarative sentence that can either be true or false but not both even if it is unknown whether it is true or false. iii. Inference – inference is a process of drawing conclusions by the use of other proposition/s as the basis. Here, we use the supporting evidence to come up with propositions. iv. Argument – argument is a statement with a conclusion derived from one or any group of propositions which acts as support to prove the point of the former. Example of this is when we make a claim and support it with reasons, we are making an argument. v. Explanation – explanation is the statement that explains or makes something clearer and it answers the question how did it happen? We also prove here that our conclusion is true. II. Distinguish an argument from an explanation (you may write your answer in English, Filipino, or Taglish). (3 pts) Argument and explanation are two different forms of reasoning. Explaining and arguing are different activities even though they use the same structure. Both have single sentences as their primary focus. An argument contains a conclusion. In an explanation, the sentence is called explanandum. An argument is an attempt to provide support for a claim. For example, a statement: The boy has a broken leg. In an argument, after this statement they ask how do you know? This question is used to seek evidence. Evidence is kind of the reason. The attempt to provide evidence in support of a conclusion is normally called an argument.