CH 105 Notes Chapter 12

CH 105 Notes Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Alcohols, Phenols,...

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Chapter 12 – Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols, and Ethers PAGE 383 INTRO The characteristic functional group of the alcohols and phenols is the hydroxyl group (-OH) R-OH (R is any alkyl group) Phenols are similar in structure but contain an aryl group in place of the alkyl group o Both can be viewed as substituted water molecules in which one of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group o Ethers have two alkyl or aryl groups attached to the oxygen atom and may be thought of as substituted alcohols. The functional group characteristic of an ether is R-O-R Thiols are a family of compounds that contain the sulfhydryl group (-SH) The thiol group is found in the structure of some amino acids The hydroxyl group is often involved in a variety of reactions such as oxidation, reduction, hydration, and dehydration PAGE 384 12.1 ALCOHOLS: STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES As alcohol is an organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an alkyl group. o The oxygen and the two atoms bonded to it lie in the same plane. o R-O-H = 104 degrees o Hydroxyl group of alcohol is very polar Oxygen and hydrogen atoms have significantly different electro negativities Alcohols boil at much higher temperatures than hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight Alcohols of one to four carbon atoms are very soluble in water Those with Six carbons are moderately soluble in water Due to the ability of the alcohol to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water molecules As the nonpolar (hydrophobic) portion of an alcohol (Carbon Chain) becomes larger relative to the polar region (hydroxyl group) the water solubility of an alcohol decreases. Alcohols of seven carbon atoms or more insoluble in water
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CH 105 taught by Professor Schiner during the Spring '08 term at Alabama.

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CH 105 Notes Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Alcohols, Phenols,...

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