Respiratory System.docx - Respiratory System STRUCTURE OF...

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Respiratory System STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYS Upper respiratory system - includes nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box) Nasal cavit y- divided medially by nasal septum o Palate - separates nasal and oral cavity o Lined w mucosa - warms, filters, moistens incoming air Contains receptors for sense of smell o Paranasal sinus, nasolacrimal ducts - drain into nasal cavity o Paranasal sinuses- Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid ( help lighten skull ) Lined w mucus membrane Pharynx - mucous lined muscular tube o Nasopharynx- functions in respiration only o Oropharynx/laryngopharynx - digestion + respiration functions o Contains tonsils o Tonsils- fight off pathogens entering resp. tract Contains high concentrations of WBC to fight infection Adenoid tonsils- if enlarged, cause snoring and/or sleep apnea Palatine tonsils - S. Pyrogenes can live here, can cause strep throat = removal Lingual tonsils- under tongue Eustachian Tube - leads to middle ear o Pathogens can enter middle ear thru this opening o Equalizes pressure b/w middle ear and outside Uvula- goes up when u swallow o Blocks food from entering nasal passages Larynx- cartilage structure o Prominent cartilage - adam’s apple o Connects pharynx w trachea below o Epiglottis - covers laryngeal opening (glottis) to prevent entry of food or drink into respiratory passages when swallowing made of elastic cartilage o Contains true vocal cords Elongation/thickening during puberty causes lower voice o Laryngitis- inflammation of larynx due to either vocal cord gathering too much mucus or inflammation of vocal cords itself o Thyroid gland is beneath
Lower respiratory system - includes trachea (windpipe), lungs, bronchial tube Trachea - extends from larynx to primary bronchi o Smooth muscle line w ciliated mucous o Lined by pseudostratified epithelium o Hyaline cartilage - protects/holds trachea open o Located anterior to esophagus o Cilia move materials out of body so u can cough it out Lungs o Parietal pleura : attached to chest wall so when chest moves outward, it pulls this with it o Visceral pleura : attached to lung tissue o Found in pleural cavity: has thin layer of slippery serous fluid Holds both pleural layers together Prevents friction when lungs change size Pleuritis (pleurisy)- inflammation of pleura Bronchi- right and left result from division of trachea o Successive bronchi and bronchioles have less cartilage, less cilia, and more smooth muscle o Bronchi have lobes w several bronchopulmonary segments Separated by elastic CT- stretchy to help lungs expand easily and spring back Some lung diseases (fibrosis) cause tissue to not be stretchy to make it harder to expand (inhale) and deflate (exhale) lungs o Primary bronchi (1 st division) Right bronchus - shorter, wider Divides into 3 smaller branches for 3 lobules Left bronchus - longer, narrow Subdivides into 2 branches for 2 lobules Bronchioles - branches of bronchi that connect bronchi to alveoli o

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