Kung san in africa on the other hand have a hard time

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Unformatted text preview: rental investment theory) Gender roles are a consequence of sexual selection producing actual sex differences and highly intelligent Homo Sapiens noticing • Moreover, the pancultural and chronic presence of gender roles may have resulted in psychological adaptations surrounding process of gender socialization • Children seem designed to notice and consume information on gender and gender roles 4) Ecologically Induced: Sex-role ideology varies across cultures, and functions in extreme stereotypical cultures to adapt to local ecological requirements • In New Guinea the Sambians experience a lot of war, and the rigid gender roles allow the boys to be socialized as warriors very early and without question • Among the !Kung San in Africa, on the other hand, have a hard time gathering food, and have more egalitarian gender roles to allow for both men and women to pursue the foodgathering strategy that best fits the seasonal variation Sex Role Ideology • Sex-role ideology has to do with judgments about what males and females ought to be like or ought to do • Williams and Best (1990) study of 14 countries found: – Highly egalitarian/progressive: Netherlands, Germany and Finland – Highly traditional: Nigeria, Pakistan and India • Gibbons and colleagues (1990) studied adolescents – Adolescents from wealthier and individualistic countries less traditional – Gender ideologies may be changing as societies change – Religion may play a role in keeping with traditional gender roles • Hofstede (1981) Masculinity versus Femininity: degree to which culture will foster, encourage, or maintain differences between males and females – Highly masculine: Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy – Low masculine: Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden Masculinity/Femininity (M/F) World average on masculinity is 50; USA = 60 ISDP-2 SRI 50+ Nations Instructions: A number of statements are listed below. Each represents a commonly held opinion and there are no right or wrong answers. We are interested in whether you agree or disagree with such matters of opinion. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree by circling the number that best expresses your opinion. 1) A married woman should feel free to have men as friends. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Disagree Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Undecided Agree Agree Slightly 7 Agree Strongly 2) Woman’s work and men’s work should not be fundamentally different in nature. 3) Women should be paid a salary by the state for the work they perform as mothers and homemakers. 4) Women should be allowed the same sexual freedom as men. ISDP-2 SRI Results ISDP-2 and WVS Representative Sampling r(31) = .73*** Does Women’s Freedom Relate to Low Religion? r(51) = .74*** Religion and SRI within USA Implications? SES and SRI in the USA Ethnicity and SRI in USA Relationship Status and SRI in USA Sexual Orientation and SRI in USA Age and SRI in the USA Additional SRI Correlates Traditional women make less money Traditional women (& low masc) more likely bulimic Numerous related findings linked to positive outcomes for women when possessing progressive and feminist attitudes; why? Additional SRI Correlates After controlling for gender role orientation (Masc/Fem), men are more likely to be positive toward homosexuality (opposite without control). Also linked with positive attitudes toward gays are progressive SRI (-AWS) and lower benevolent sexism. Gender and Sexism (ASI) • Stereotypes (Cognition; Stereotype Threat), Prejudice (Affect; IAT), and Discrimination (Behavior); in the domain of gender, SEXISM • Due to men’s ambivalence to women, 2 forms: – Hostile sexism: women are inferior to men, feel antipathy for them – Benevolent sexism: women are weaker sex and need protecting, love them, depend on them Sexism (ASI) Correlates • Hostile sexism: women are inferior to men, men feel antipathy for them, hostile when not traditional – Social dominance orientation and RWA may be central origin among men (Sibley et al., 2007) – Hostile men like attractive romantic partners (Sibley, 2009) – Hostile people endorse Western beauty ideals (Forbes, 2007) • Benevolent sexism: women are weaker sex and need protecting, love them, idealize those who are traditional – Women appear to react with benevolent sexism (toward own gender) as a way of coping with benevolent sexist experiences (Fischer, 2006; Sibley et al., 2007) – Benevolent sexism worse for women’s cognitive performance than hostile sexism (Dardenne, 2007), mainly because women have fewer defenses against it – Benevolent sexist women like high status/resources romantic partners • Same measure of sexism toward men correlates across nations with ASI, is relate to treating men as designed for dominance Figure 1. Hostility toward men across cultures (descending women's) Why USA women so low on beneficial sexism to men? Figure 2. Benevolence toward men across cultures (descending women's) Time for Group 2 Work...
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